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2020.09.26 13:10 flyinmacaronimonster A Voting Guide to Suburban Chicago

IMPORTANT NOTE: If you live within the City Limits of Chicago, you will be voting in the City of Chicago, and NOT Cook County.
Suburban Cook County Voters (for voters outside of the city limits of Chicago): Voting starts on WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 7
Early Voting:
**ALL BALLOTS NEED TO BE RETURNED BY 7:00PM ON ELECTION DAY (regardless, try to drop off your ballot as soon as you can).
NO 24/7 DROP-BOXES IN COOK COUNTY. There will ONLY be temporary drop-boxes available at early voting locations and at the main clerk's office. So, IF YOU GET YOUR BALLOT, you should wait until WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 7 to drop it off at the Cook County Office Building, OR you should wait until MONDAY, OCTOBER 19 so you can drop it off at any early voting location, including the Cook County Office Building. SEE Early Voting BELOW FOR LOCATIONS AND HOURS.
Early voting begins in the Pedway level (below ground level) of the George W. Dunne Cook County Office Building @ 69 W Washington St, Chicago, IL 60602 on Wednesday, October 7 (in-person voting not available for Suburban Cook County voters until then). Closest 'L' Stop: Washington (CTA Blue Line).
Hours: Open 8:30am-7pm MON-FRI between Wednesday, October 7 and Friday, October 16; open MON-SUN between Monday, October 19 and Monday, November 2 (8:30am-7pm MON-FRI and 9am-5pm SAT & SUN).
Expanded Early Voting
Drop-boxes: (1) 24/7 drop-box at the South Parking Lot of the Jack T. Knuepfer Administration Building, 421 N County Farm Road, Wheaton, IL 60187.
Image of Drop-Box
Source of Image:
Temporary drop-boxes available at BOTH Early Voting sites AND Election Day Polling Locations.
Early Voting:
(1) location available as of now. Early voting is available at the DuPage County Fairgrounds at 2015 Manchester Rd, Wheaton, IL 60187.
Hours: Open MON-SAT through to Monday, November 2.
Up through to Saturday, October 17: Open 8:00am-4:30pm MON-FRI and 9:00am-12 noon SAT.
Between Monday, October 19 and Monday, November 2: Open 8:30am-7:00pm MON-FRI and 9:00am-5:00pm SAT & SUN.
Expanded early voting begins WITH TOUCHSCREEN MACHINES starting on Monday, October 19. A total of (18) locations with touchscreen voting and (1) location with hand-marked paper ballots will be available after Monday, October 19. Check out the [LIST OF EARLY VOTING LOCATIONS] link below.
Drop-boxes: (3) INTERIOR, TIME-LIMITED drop-boxes, open during office hours.
• The (2) initial early voting locations in Geneva and Aurora
City of Elgin Municipal Complex, 150 Dexter Ct, Elgin, IL 60120
Early voting is initially available at (2) locations:
• Kane County Clerk’s Office at the Kane County Government Complex, Building B 60134
Street View
Kane County Clerk's Office - Aurora Satellite Office, 5 E Downer Pl, Aurora, IL 60505
Street View
Hours (Through to Friday, October 16): 8:30am-4:30pm MON-FRI.
Hours (between Monday, October 19 and Monday, November 2): 8:30am-7:00pm MON-FRI and 9:00am-5:00pm SAT & SUN.
Expanded Early Voting begins Monday, October 19 through to Monday, November 2. There will be a total of 13 additional locations (15 locations in total), plus a rolling polling location that will be at various places throughout the county, each day of the week. See [FULL LIST OF EARLY VOTING LOCATIONS] in the link below:
Drop-boxes: (1) 24/7 exterior drop-box at the Kendall County Office Building, 111 W Fox St, Yorkville, IL 60560
Early voting: Early voting is available right now at the Kendall County Clerk & Recorder's office, at the Kendall County Office Building, 111 W Fox St, Room 103, Yorkville IL (Same address as listed above).
Hours: 8:00am-4:30pm MON-FRI up through to Friday, October 16.
Between Monday, October 19 and Monday, November 2: Open 8:00am-7:00pm MON-FRI and 9:00am-5:00pm SAT
Expanded early voting will begin Monday, October 19, at three additional locations, as well as the Kendall County Clerk & Recorder's office. (4 locations in total).
Hours and locations for expanded early voting found in the list of links below. See [FULL LIST OF EARLY VOTING LOCATIONS].
Drop-boxes: (4) 24/7 EXTERIOR DROP-BOXES available as of now:
Temporary drop-boxes also available at all early voting sites.
See full list below for all drop-box locations:
Early voting begins at the Lake County Courthouse, 18 N County St, Room 101, Waukegan, IL 60085. Will move to the lobby starting Monday, October 19.
Hours in the Clerk's Office (up to to Friday, October 16): 9:00am-5:00pm MON-FRI.
Hours in the Lobby (between Monday, October 19-Monday, November 2): 8:30am-7:00pm MON-FRI and 9:00am-5:00pm SAT & SUN.
Also serves as an Election Day Vote Center for all Lake County voters, open during regular polling hours: 6:00am-7:00pm.
Expanded early voting starts on Monday, October 19, as early voting will expand to 16 additional locations, including the Lake County Courthouse, bringing the total number of voting locations to (17) early voting locations in total between Monday, October 19 and Sunday, November 1 (open MON-SUN, 8:30am-7:00pm MON-FRI and 9:00am-5:00pm SAT & SUN).
On Monday, November 2, the # of early voting locations will be reduced from 17 voting locations to 4, open 8:30am-7:00pm on the 2nd.
See the [LIST OF EARLY VOTING SITES in the list below].
Drop-box: (1) drop-box located at the McHenry County Administration Building, 667 Ware Rd, Woodstock, IL 60098
Image of Drop-box
Source of Image:
Early Voting in McHenry County is available now, at the McHenry County Clerk's office, located at the same address as listed above in the drop-box section (McHenry County Administration Building, 667 Ware Rd, Woodstock, IL 60098).
Hours: 8:00am-4:30pm MON-FRI up through to Friday, October 16.
Between Monday, October 19 and Monday, November 2: Open 8:00am-7:00pm MON-FRI and 9:00am-5:00pm SAT
Expanded Early Voting begins on Monday, October 19. See [FULL LIST OF EARLY VOTING LOCATIONS] in links below.
Drop-boxes: (1) 24/7 exterior drop-box. See [24/7 DROP-BOX LOCATION] in the list of links below. (7) other INTERIOR, TIME LIMITED DROP-BOXES. See [DROP-BOX DIRECTORY] in list of links before.
Early Voting: (1) early voting location initially. See [INITIAL EARLY VOTING LOCATION] in the list of links below for more details.
Expanded early voting begins on Monday, October 19. See the [EARLY VOTING DIRECTORY] in the list of links below for more details.
IF YOU DO NOT LIVE IN ANY OF THESE OF THESE ABOVE COUNTIES, a directory of election authorities in all jurisdictions can be found here: [ELECTION AUTHORITY DIRECTORY]
Keep in mind that, IF YOU HAVE ALREADY REGISTERED TO VOTE-BY-MAIL, AND YOU WANT TO VOTE IN-PERSON ABSENTEE, YOU WILL NEED TO CANCEL YOUR BALLOT REQUEST BEFORE GOING TO VOTE IN-PERSON. Contact your your jurisdiction's election authority to cancel your ballot if you want to vote in-person.
There is only one location for in-person voting during at this point (generally speaking it is your Clerk/Election Commissioner's office during business hours), but, starting in October (start dates vary by jurisdiction), there will be expanded early voting in many jurisdictions (smaller counties may only have one location), and early voting available on weekends (both Saturdays and Sundays).
For more details, check out this link:
If you have registered to vote-by-mail, once you have received your ballot, READ THE INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY, fill it out properly, and then DROP IT OFF AT A DROP-BOX (if your jurisdiction has one), or, if your jurisdiction doesn't have one, you should still hand-deliver your ballot to your jurisdiction's Election Authority in order to 100% guarantee that it will arrive on time. Ballots need to be returned by 7:00pm on Election Day, though try to get your ballot in as soon as possible. [DROP-BOX]
Returning your ballot is fairly straightforward. Either put it in a drop-box or drop it off at your Election Authority's office. Most drop-boxes are exterior, 24/7 drop-boxes, some are interior, time-limited drop-boxes.
If your ballot has been rejected due to a signature mismatch, there is a cure process available, that allows you to correct your signature. It is available up to two weeks after Election Day (expires Tuesday, November 17).
If you are confined to your home, you may have somebody else drop off or hand-deliver your ballot for you. If you are hand-delivering somebody else's ballot, there is what is called an "Affidavit of Hand-Delivery" included with each ballot, that you will need to sign before dropping it off. AS A GENERAL RULE, DO NOT GIVE YOUR BALLOT TO ANYBODY THAT YOU DO NOT FULLY TRUST.
LINKS TO SOURCES: [register to vote] [voter registration deadlines] [ELECTION AUTHORITY DIRECTORY] [DROP-BOX] [cure process for signature mismatch] [signature mismatch cure process] [YOU CAN CANCEL YOUR BALLOT REQUEST] [who can return a ballot]
submitted by flyinmacaronimonster to ChicagoSuburbs [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 13:04 AutoModerator Weekly Questions Thread (Sep 26)

Welcome to the question megathread! If you have any questions around FFXI at all, this is the place to ask. Scroll down to the comments and ask away. Various FFXI resources are provided in the body of this topic directly before the comments.

ffxi FAQ

Are you a new or returning player? We have quite the list of Frequently Asked Questions that's pretty comprehensive of the questions most commonly asked around the sub. If your question isn't answered there, feel free to shoot in the comments below.

BG Wiki

BG Wiki is a modern FFXI wiki with up-to-date pages on endgame specifics as well as various guides.
It is currently the only XI wiki with an active staff which are always working with members of the community to address concerns and suggestions. BG seeks to be the main wiki of the community. Consolidating the efforts of everyone into one single wiki is the most productive and effective. We welcome and invite all to join us!
  • A thread can be found on in which you can report issues with the wiki and read a getting started FAQ if you wish to contribute! That thread is located here.
  • Anyone wishing to join Team Blue Gartr may join the Discord.


FFXIclopedia is a comprehensive general-purpose wiki for FFXI that typically covers pages for each item/area/BCNM/etc. Note: The site has heavy ads when logged out, due to Wikia (especially on mobile).


FFXIAH is a website showing the Auction House history & current items for sale in-game, as well as a forum community among other things. FFXIDB is a database website showing drop rates of items as well as monster spawns based of player data collected by Guildwork.

Making Friends

There are various ways to make new friends and meet people in FFXI. The first recommendation is to find a Linkshell via Linkshell Concierge NPCs. If you check these NPCs directly after a maintenance, this is typically a good way to find active Linkshells. Another suggestion is to find a community website for your server; many servers have a Facebook group (some are listed on the subreddit sidebar). The subreddit also has a Discord server for chatting/voice.
This thread is default sorted by new. If you have any suggestions regarding the information above, feel free to send the moderators a modmail. Your FFXI questions can be asked below
submitted by AutoModerator to ffxi [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 12:41 promiscuous_bhisma How reliable is the claim by Trautmann and Olivelle that Kautilya and Chanakya were two different people and the arthashastra was not actually authored by Chanakya ? To what extent has it been accepted academically or to what extent has it been scrutinised?

Basically I came across this citation in the wiki of arthashastra,_date_of_writing,_and_structure
Scholars such as R. P. Kangle theorize that the text was authored by the Maurya prime minister Chanakya.[39] Others, such as Olivelle and Thomas Trautmann, argue that this verse is a later addition, and that the identification of Chanakya and Kautilya is a relatively later development that occurred during the Gupta period. Trautmann points out that none of the earlier sources that refer to Chanakya mention his authorship of the Arthashastra.[39] Olivelle proposes that in an attempt to present the Guptas as the legitimate successors of the Mauryas, the author of political treatise followed by the Guptas was identified with the Maurya prime minister.[40]
I hope I would learn about any counter claims or supporting claims to the above or any elaborate explanation to the above
submitted by promiscuous_bhisma to AskHistorians [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 12:26 Aebian Windows 10 Pro issues with TPM 2.0 Chip [Dell XPS]


I'm currently facing some issues with the TPM chip of my laptop ( which blocks me from encrypting my drive via Bitlocker.

Image of the error + some info:
"The device can't use a Trusted Platforn Module"

As you can see in the screenshot I have a 2.0 TPM chip which seems to get recognized in Windows Device Manager. However it does not work for Bitlocker.

I already tried the following:
- TPM clear via BIOS
- TPM clear via Windows GUI and PowerShell
- Restart of laptop several times
- disable of TPM
- enable of TPM

Drivers are up-to-date according to Dell's website and tools.
Any help would be appreciated.


submitted by Aebian to pcmasterrace [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 12:01 PelotonMod [Race Thread] 2020 UCI Road World Championships – Imola Emilia Romagna – Women Elite - individual road race

Women Elite - individual road race

Date Route Distance Type Climbs Time
Sat Sep. 26 Imola > Imola 143 km RR - Hilly Mazzolano, Gallisterna 12:45-16:43 CEST
Main Info Official Website / Roadbook
Official Channels Youtube / Facebook / Instagram / Twitter / Tiktok
Startlists UCI / Cycling Fever / ProCyclingStats / FirstCycling
Previews Cyclingtips, SBS, ProCycling UK
Live Updates Tissot, UCI, UCI Twitter, Cycling News, Pro Cycling Stats, Eurosport
TV Eurosport, Broadcasters list
Streams Tiz, Cycling Today, UCI Stream, available in countries without TV coverage
Fantasy Leagues WWT RFL predictions
submitted by PelotonMod to peloton [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 12:00 saintkimpablo US CITIZENS: Please Register to Vote and Other Voting Info

We think it's important, more than ever this year, to try and make a difference. Especially when one of our star's husband is trying to make the election even more convoluted than it already is, please don't give them that attention. Please.
But that's not the point of this post!

Registering to vote takes about a minute or two, please do it here!:

If you're are US Citizen and 18 years old (even 17 in some states but it's very specific, still worth taking a look at) or simply have never registered to vote before, please do it! It's so quick and easy, if only voting was that easy everywhere! Don't put it off just because it's a minute or two! If you only do one thing on this list today, please let it be your voter registration! You can even just look to see if you're registered for fun! I did 🙈

Some voting info to keep in mind:

The election is 38 days away on Tuesday, November 3rd, 2020.
Absentee Voting and COVID-19: Here is a page on what different states are doing regarding the COVID-19 pandemic and how to request an absentee ballot in case that your state allows you to: COVID-19 Make sure you send it off as soon as possible too or know where to drop it off!
Polling Place Locator: It is definitely not to early to think about where you are going to be voting in person, especially with the COVID-19 pandemic! Some counties are literally opening up empty stadiums for voting(which is actually really cool) so definitely look at your options here: Polling Place Locator
Early Voting Dates: To find out when to early vote if your state allows it(which is CRAZY, I didn't know you couldn't in every state, that's sick) try this page: Early Voting Calendar
Voter Identification Laws: Here's a website that lists acceptable forms of ID for your state, make sure to have everything!: Ballotpedia Voter Identification Laws by State
Sample Ballot Lookup: If you're lucky enough to be able to do absentee voting, that's like when you get a take home test and you can just look up the answers, but in this case it's the people on the ballot, so cool!(Can you tell I'm jealous?)
But for the many of us that can't and have to be bombarded by the people giving out little flyers and pamphlets in parking lots that you're never going to look at again and then blank out in the polling place(I've never done that, ever), look up a sample ballot for your area! You can do that here already: Ballotpedia Sample Ballot Lookup
Voter Guides in Different Languages from the U.S. Election Assistance Commission

Your Voting Rights:

You can also report voter intimidation at the phone numbers above.

Finally, please make your voice heard! 🗳️🎆🗳️

It's so easy to be cynical about voting in this country, believe me, my first Presidential Election was in 2016. But it's definitely not the year to sit this one out. We hope you find this post informative. Thank you for reading! ❤️
submitted by saintkimpablo to KUWTK [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 10:44 AutoModerator F4 German Championship: Nurburgring II - Race 3 Discussion

ADAC Formula 4 Nurburgring II - Race 3

F1FS Wiki: FIA Formula 4 Guide 2020 Drivers & Teams 2020 Calendar

Session Times

A .pdf of the weekends timetable including other events can be found here.
All times are in CEST (UTC +2:00)
Session Local Time
Free Practice 1 Thu 09:15
Free Practice 2 Thu 10:00
Qualifying 1 Thu 11:35
Qualifying 2 Fri 08:10
Race 1 Fri 15:05
Race 2 Sat 08:25
Race 3 Sat 13:10
You can convert the session times to your local time by follow the following link.


Nürburg, Germany
Circuit Diagram
Length: 4.569 km (2.839 mi)
Turns: 13
Length: 30 Minutes (Max)
Cars Entered: 13
Entry List: Here

Live Streaming & Timing

The ADAC Formula 4 series has it's own official Live Streaming & Live Timing services:

F1FS Guide

New to FIA Formula 4? You can watch our dedicated video guide that introduces the category HERE!


For up to date information regarding this series, follow these Twitter accounts:
  • ADAC F4: No official account, use the hashtag #ADACF4
  • F1FS Twitter: @F1FeederSeries


We have a Discord server for the subreddit, check it out here: Link

On-Demand Race Replays

You can access previous races of this series here: 2019 ADAC F4 Race Replays


Full championship standings here: Link
submitted by AutoModerator to F1FeederSeries [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 09:08 exposedtofire The Rescinded Victoria Cross of James McGuire

A thirty year old veteran at the time of the Indian Mutiny in 1857, James McGuire was an Irishman who was awarded the Victoria Cross for saving his colleagues from a massive explosion by running into an ignited ammunition dump and disposing of the lit ammunition into a nearby body of water.
The citation is as follows:
J. McGuire, No. 1863, Serjeant, and M. Ryan, No. 1874, Drummer, 1st Bengal European Fusiliers. Date of act of bravery, September 14th, 1857. At the assault on Delhi on September 14th, 1857, when the Brigade had reached the Cabul Gate, the 1st Fusiliers and 75th Regiment, and some Sikhs were waiting for orders, and some of the regiments were getting ammunition served out (three boxes of which exploded from some cause not clearly known, and two others were in a state of ignition), when Sergeant McGuire and Drummer Ryan rushed into the burning mass, and, seizing the boxes, threw them, one after the other, over the parapet into the water. The confusion subsequent on the explosion was very great, and the crowds of soldiers and native followers, who did not know where the danger lay, were rushing into certain destruction, when Sergeant McGuire and Drummer Ryan, by their coolness and personal daring, saved the lives of many at the risk of their own.
However McGuire would later lose his VC within five years for the act of stealing a cow and shortly thereafter die just a few days before Christmas in 1862, approximately age 35.
Sources: -Biography: History of The Royal Munster Fusiliers, vol 1 Appendix 'L', page 222.
submitted by exposedtofire to HistoryAnecdotes [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 08:09 AdequateSizeAttache Setting the Record Straight on the Evidence of Prior Sexual Abuse - Part 1

[This post has been split into two parts because of selfpost character limits.]


It surprises me how often I see discussions involving speculation on whether JonBenet's UTIs, vaginitis, bedwetting, and history of frequent doctor visits indicate sexual abuse or not. These discussions invariably include people chiming in to share how they or someone they know had similar issues but were never abused. From these discussions, one could get the impression that itchy pageant costumes or Mr. Bubble useage are perfectly reasonable explanations for the evidence of sexual abuse.
The fact is, there's no need to speculate based on these things. There is physical evidence of prior sexual abuse. This is the evidence that should be at the forefront of discussions on the question of sexual abuse, not bubble baths or bedwetting. Issues such as vaginitis, UTIs, and bedwetting are not specific to sexual abuse; there are other possible explanations for them. There is no other possible explanation for the physical evidence besides trauma from physical penetration.
In reading discussions on the case over the years, it's always puzzled me how often the evidence of prior sexual abuse gets downplayed or dismissed. In considering why, I believe it is due primarily to these two common misconceptions:
Common Misconception 1 (as demonstrated above): The evidence of sexual abuse = vaginal irritation, UTIs, rashes, bedwetting, soiling, frequent doctor visits
Common Misconception 2: There is a medical debate on the issue and there's evidence to support both sides
Common Misconception 1 is a straw man argument — the actual evidence (the physical findings) is not being addressed or refuted.
Common Misconception 2 is an argument from false equivalence. An equal, rather than accurate, amount of weight is given to both sides of the issue. People see the mountain of conflicting information and contradicting opinions and think "It looks like expert opinion on this issue is divided; I guess a case can be made for either side." The enormous difference in expertise and experience between the various experts is ignored, as is the level of access they had to the evidence. This misconception gives the impression that all these expert opinions cancel each other out, rendering the issue debatable and open to interpretation. Consequently, the probative value of the evidence is undermined, making it easier for people to feel they can dismiss.
I think several factors have contributed to these two misconceptions:
However, if one takes a closer look at the evidence, it becomes apparent that it is not weighted equally on both sides. There is no medical debate, but a medical consensus. Every child sexual abuse expert who examined the genital findings from JonBenet's autopsy recognized physical signs of sexual abuse that predated her murder. Despite some objections to their conclusion, no one has disputed the physical findings of these experts. Their findings are compelling and should be seriously considered. In order to do that, though, one must first understand what the findings are and get acquainted with the doctors who testified to them.
The purpose of this post is to lay out everything that is known about the evidence of prior sexual abuse, but also to put it into a larger context so that hopefully it will be better understood. This will involve delving a bit into the history of child sexual abuse evaluations (it will become relevant later), as well as some background information of the experts involved. I will also go over dissenting opinions and address some common counterarguments and myths.

The evolution of modern pediatric sexual abuse evaluations: A brief historical timeline

1857 - One of the first known forensic medical studies on child sexual abuse, Étude médico-légale sur les attentats aux mœurs (Forensic study on offenses against morals) by French medical doctor and pathologist Auguste Ambroise Tardieu, is published. This treatise describes various forms of child abuse and maltreatment and includes anatomical drawings of genital findings which by modern standards are considered surprisingly accurate and ahead of its time. For some reason these efforts are largely ignored and it will be over a century before interest in sexual abuse evaluations from a medical perspective is resurrected.
1940s-50s - Child sexual abuse remains an unacknowledged taboo. Medical textbooks of this era tell doctors that children can contract STIs like gonorrhea from non-sexual means, such as from toilet seats, sharing towels, or sleeping in the same bed as an infected adult. Such myths will pervade for decades.
1962 - "The Battered Child Syndrome" by pediatrician C. Henry Kempe is published and physical child abuse is recognized. A watershed moment in pediatrics and child abuse protection. This article is about detecting hidden signs of physical abuse using modern radiological technology and newly proposed evaluation guidelines. Detecting chronic or hidden sexual abuse, however, will prove to be a more enduring challenge.
Late 1960s - By now all 50 states have child abuse protection laws in place.
1970s - Feminist campaigners and policymakers take up the cause of child sexual abuse. Most child protection workers during this period are social workers and therapists. The field of child abuse protection and evaluation is in its nascency.
1974 - Congress enacts the Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA, P.L. 93-247). CAPTA creates a nationwide focus on establishing standardized protocols for dealing with all forms of child abuse and neglect. Mandatory reporting is one component of CAPTA. Before, only doctors were required to report cases of suspected child abuse; now, it is anyone in a position of authority — teachers, camp counselors, etc. Consequently, there is a significant increase in the reporting of child abuse cases and an increase in the demand of evaluations for suspected sexual abuse. Most of the physicians doing these medical evaluations are not researchers or academics but work with prosecutor's offices and law enforcement.
1975 - Suzanne M. Sgroi, physician pioneer in the field, publishes an article calling child sexual abuse "the last frontier in child abuse" which "remains a taboo topic in many areas."
1977 - C. Henry Kempe brings awareness to the issue of child sexual abuse by following up "The Battered Child Syndrome" with a landmark lecture at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Pediatrics in New York City. The talk, titled "Sexual Abuse, Another Hidden Pediatric Problem" is published in the journal Pediatrics the following year.
1980s - Doctors start examining children's genitals, documenting, cataloging and trying to interpret their findings. Some use a colposcope, a binocular-like instrument originally used to detect cervical cancer, which magnifies the vaginal canal and tissues up to 4-30x. Some take anatomical measurements which they use to develop criteria for suspected abuse. They know what findings they see in abused children, but there is an acute lack of understanding of what "normal" or nonabused genital findings look like.
1981 - The article "Sexual Misuse: Rape, Molestation, and Incest" by Dr. Bruce Woodling is published in the journal Pediatric Clinics of North America.
Dr. Woodling is a California physician whose area of specialty is in sexual abuse forensics. The paper presents his research on what he has dubbed the "wink response test", a concept borrowed from Tardieu's 19th-century forensic manual. This test involves stroking the area near the anus with a cotton swab and gauging the response — contraction of the sphincter indicates no abuse, while an involuntary opening or 'winking' response indicates prior penetration. It was a test Tardieu developed to diagnose pederasty and Woodling has applied it to children as a way to detect anal abuse.
1982 - The wave of daycare sexual abuse hysteria of the 80s begins with the Kern County abuse allegations. The investigation and trial will culminate in the conviction of two couples (the McCuans and Kniffens) for sexually abusing several children. Dr. Woodling's wink response test and testimony play a part in their conviction. Several other similar cases in the same area at the time result in convictions of several others.
1984 - Daycare abuse hysteria continues with the Fells Acres and McMartin Preschool accusations. In the Fells Acre case, day care teacher Gerald Amirault will be put on trial and convicted of sexually assaulting and raping nine children. Questionable interview methods of the children and unproven genital evaluation criteria form the basis for the conviction.
The McMartin preschool case is the first to receive major media attention in the United States. Pediatrician Astrid Heger, under the tutelage of Dr. Bruce Woodling, conducts many of the evaluations of the McMartin children and diagnoses the majority of them as having been sexually abused. The criteria used for the evaluations are based primarily on Woodling's research as well as other published papers at the time (e.g., Cantwell's 1983 study on hymenal diameter measurements). Many of the children are found to have suspect genital findings such as notches, clefts, bands, tissue tags, ruffled or rolled hymenal edges, 'microtraumas' seen only with magnification, hymenal openings which measure over four millimeters, as well as positive reactions to Woodling's wink response test.
mid to late 80s - More abuse allegations and convictions including Country Walk, Wee Nursery, Bronx Five, Little Rascals day care, Glendale Montessori cases.
1988 - Dr. John McCann, a pediatrics professor and researcher from UCSF School of Medicine, drops a bombshell at the 18th annual child abuse convention in San Diego. He presents the results of a study he and his colleagues have worked on the past four years. They had gathered a control group of about 300 nonabused/"normal" children and meticulously documented and photographed their anuses and genitals, the first such study to do so. What they learned shocked McCann and everyone else in the field. Many of the anatomic findings which some specialists were claiming to be signs of abuse were commonly found in the nonabused children. The study showed that the large variation of anatomical features of childrens' genitals were, in fact, just that — variations of normal. This meant that parents and caretakers were being reported and convicted based on erroneous unscientific criteria. This presentation, titled "Anatomical Standardization of Normal Prepubertal Children," is a watershed moment in the field.
1989 - The first paper based on McCann's study ("Perianal findings in prepubertal children selected for nonabuse: a descriptive study") is published in the journal Child Abuse & Neglect. Among its conclusions, it shows that Dr. Woodling's wink response test has no scientific basis.
The impact of McCann's study influences leaders in the field to call for an overhaul in the way sexual abuse evaluation criteria are approached:
Medical Examination for Sexual Abuse: Have We Been Misled?
The more we learn, the less we know "with reasonable medical certainty"?
1990s - This decade sees an explosion of research and progress. The second paper based on McCanns' landmark study ("Genital findings in prepubertal girls selected for nonabuse: a descriptive study") is published in the journal Pediatrics in 1990. The dropping of charges in the McMartin preschool trial, also in 1990, marks the beginning of the winding down of the nation's abuse hysteria. McCann's research is presented as evidence by the defense in some abuse trials, such as the McMartin and Little Rascals daycare cases.
1992 - A classification system for evaluating children for suspected sexual abuse is proposed by Dr. Joyce Adams, Katherine Harper and Sandra Knudson. This later becomes known as the Adams classification system (keep this system in mind as we will be referring back to it) and will be periodically revised with updated criteria throughout the following decades. It will be adopted and used in the field of child abuse pediatrics and gynecology worldwide. John McCann's research help form a basis for this system.
mid to late 90s - More research based on cross-sectional, case-control, and longitudinal studies of abused and nonabused children are published which improves understanding and accuracy of evaluation criteria: Berenson, Heger, Adams, Emans, Kellogg, Kerns, McCann, Muram, Finkel, etc. Due to the errors of the previous decade, specialists in the field are highly conscientious and prudent about differentiating nonabuse from abuse criteria.

The evidence of prior sexual abuse in the JonBenet Ramsey case: What we know

When Boulder County Coroner Dr. John Meyer performed JonBenet's autopsy, he identified signs of acute vaginal trauma which he believed was consistent with digital penetration. What we didn't find out until the publication of James Kolar's book Foreign Faction in 2012 is that Dr. Meyer also saw indications of prior sexual contact. Concerned about this possibility, he sought a specialist opinion and brought Dr. Andrew Sirotnak to the morgue to examine JonBenet's genital injuries. Dr. Sirotnak was a child abuse pediatrician who headed the Child Protection Team at Children's Hospital Colorado. He confirmed Meyer's opinion that there were signs of prior sexual contact.
Here are the relevant passages from Kolar's book:
  • Dr. Meyer also observed signs of chronic inflammation around the vaginal orifice and believed that these injuries had been inflicted in the days or weeks before the acute injury that was responsible for causing the bleeding at the time of her death. This irritation appeared consistent with prior sexual contact.
    [Foreign Faction: Who Really Kidnapped JonBenet?, A. James Kolar, p. 58]
  • Following the meeting, Dr. Meyer returned to the morgue with Dr. Andy Sirontak, Chief of Denver Children's Hospital Child Protection Team, so that a second opinion could be rendered on the injuries observed to the vaginal area of JonBenet. He would observe the same injuries that Dr. Meyer had noted during the autopsy protocol and concurred that a foreign object had been inserted into the opening of JonBenet's vaginal orifice and was responsible for the acute injury witnessed at the 7:00 o'clock position. Further inspection revealed that the hymen was shriveled and retracted, a sign that JonBenet had been subjected to some type of sexual contact prior to the date of her death. Dr. Sirontak could not provide an opinion as to how old those injuries were or how many times JonBenet may have been assaulted and would defer to the expert opinions of other medical examiners.
    [Kolar, p. 61]
  • Dr. Meyer was concerned about JonBenet's vaginal injuries, and he, along with Boulder investigators, sought the opinions of a variety of other physicians in the days following her autopsy. Dr. Sirontak, a pediatrician with Denver Children's Hospital, had recognized signs of prior sexual trauma but neither he nor Dr. Meyer were able to say with any degree of certainty what period of time may have been involved in the abuse.
    [Kolar, p. 63]
Boulder Police would later ask several child sexual abuse experts to review the autopsy findings* in order to help them determine if there was evidence of prior sexual abuse. In addition to Andrew Sirotnak, these are the experts whom we know were consulted:
Richard Krugman
James Monteleone
Valerie Rao
John McCann
That's right — that John McCann. The same John McCann who was responsible for putting child sexual abuse evaluations onto scientific footing and who happened to establish the standards for what is considered normal and abnormal in pediatric genital exams was consulted on the JonBenet Ramsey case.
In Steve Thomas's 2001 deposition for the Wolf v Ramsey civil trial, Thomas says that McCann came recommended by the FBI. There's a reason for that, which is that McCann was regarded as one of the the foremost authorities on interpreting pediatric anogenital findings in cases of suspected abuse. Thomas also refers to McCann, Monteleone, and Rao as the "blue ribbon pediatric panel." Based on various sources, we know that there was at least one meeting in Boulder in September 1997 involving McCann, Rao, Monteleone, and Krugman.
Here is the relevant passage from Thomas's book:
In mid-September, a panel of pediatric experts from around the country reached one of the major conclusions of the investigation - that JonBenet had suffered vaginal trauma prior to the day she was killed.
There were no dissenting opinions among them on the issue, and they firmly rejected any possibility that the trauma to the hymen and chronic vaginal inflammation were caused by urination issues or masturbation. We gathered affidavits stating in clear language that there were injuries "consistent with prior trauma and sexual abuse"...."There was chronic abuse"..."Past violation of the vagina"...."Evidence of both acute injury and chronic sexual abuse." In other words, the doctors were saying it had happened before.
The results, however, were not what is known in the legal world as "conclusive" - which means that there can be no other interpretation - and I would fully expect defense lawyers to argue something different. Nevertheless, our highly qualified doctors had brought in a remarkable finding.
[JonBenet: Inside the Ramsey Murder Investigation, Steve Thomas & Don Davis, p. 253]
The experts expected to testify in court had the case gone to trial. As we know, there was no criminal trial, but we know the experts were called to testify before the grand jury.
*During JonBenet's autopsy, an instrument called a colposcope was used to examine and document her genital injuries. This is standard procedure in forensic pathology in cases of suspected child abuse or sexual assault. Colposcopy illuminates and magnifies the vaginal cavity and is used to identify abnormal changes to tissue and the internal genital structures. The experts would have relied on these colposcopic photos as well as histologic samples of JonBenet's vaginal mucosa in addition to the autopsy report, coroner's notes, and lab results.

The physical findings explained

These are the genital findings we know were discovered at JonBenet's autopsy:
Ref. no. Finding Source
1 Chronic inflammation around vaginal orifice FF
2 Small amount of dried blood on perineum AR
3 Small amount of dried and semifluid blood on skin of fourchette and in vestibule AR
4 Hyperemia of vestibule and vaginal wall AR
5 Abrasion on hymenal orifice at 7 o'clock position, involving the hymen and vaginal wall AR
6 Epithelial erosion with underlying capillary congestion of tissue from 7'oclock AR
7 Hymenal orifice measuring 1cm x 1cm AR
8 A lack of hymenal tissue between the 10 and 2 o'clock positions AR
9 Vascular congestion and focal interstitial chronic inflammation of vaginal mucosa AR
10 Bruise on hymen BP
11 Three dimensional thickening from inside to outside of inferior hymenal rim BP
12 Narrowing of inferior hymenal rim to base of hymen BP
13 Exposure of vaginal rugae BP
AR = Autopsy Report
BP = Bonita Papers
FF = Foreign Faction
What do these physical findings mean?
Here is a quick break down:
  • 5, 6, and 10, with corresponding bleeding 2 and 3, are signs of acute trauma from the time of the murder.
  • 7 is something that gets brought up as evidence of prior abuse ("enlarged hymenal opening"). However, criteria based on hymenal opening measurements were removed from the Adams classification guidelines in 1996. McCann did not include it in his criteria for abuse, but said it supported the findings for abuse. Since the late 90s/early 2000s, specialists have tried to move away from using measurement-based criteria as it is difficult to do precisely. Research data has shown that measurements can vary with the examination position, technique, age of the child, state of relaxation of the child, and the skill of the examiner.
  • 8 describes a crescentic hymen, a common variation of hymen types. This is a normal finding. Generally, discrepancies of the anterior half of the hymen (above the 3 and 9 o'clock positions) are not considered concerning and missing segments, notches, clefts can be normal findings. It is the inferior half of the hymen (below the 3 and 9 o'clock positions) where experts look for indicators of abuse.
  • 11-13 are findings observed by John McCann that describe structural changes of the hymen from a prior penetration. 12 describes a transection (a healed laceration) of the inferior portion of the hymen.
  • 1, 4, 9 can be caused by a variety of other conditions and on their own are not classified as indicators for abuse. In the case where findings indicating abuse are also present, they need to be considered in context.
McCann's findings
The most important of these findings to understand is 12, which is one of McCann's observations outlined in the Bonita Papers.
There was a three dimensional thickening from inside to outside on the inferior hymeneal rim with a bruise apparent on the external surface of the hymen and a narrowing of the hymeneal rim from the edge of the hymen to where it attaches to the muscular portion of the vaginal openings. At the narrowing area, there appeared to be very little if any hymen present.
To understand what this means, take a look at the white line segment labeled "Hymenal width" in this colposcopic photo (warning: image of vagina/hymen). It demarcates the length of the hymenal membrane from the rim/edge to the base where it attaches to the vaginal wall.
A narrowing of the hymenal rim means the hymenal membrane is reduced in dimension from the rim/edge toward the base. When the rim is narrowed all the way to the base, that is called a complete cleft or a transection. A transection is a discontinuity of the inferior hymenal rim that extends to or through the base of the hymen. Basically, it is a telltale residual absence of tissue from a healed complete laceration.
If this is difficult to visualize, here is a figure which shows what transections look like:
Figure 3: Hymenal Membrane Characteristics
The Adams classification system
In the fields of child abuse pediatrics and pediatric gynecology, the set of guidelines most widely used in interpreting genital findings is the Adams classification system.
If we were to look at the most recently revised version (2018), we would see that it identifies certain "findings caused by trauma":
These findings are highly suggestive of abuse, even in the absence of a disclosure from the child, unless the child and/or caretaker provides a timely and plausible description of accidental anogenital straddle, crush or impalement injury, or past surgical interventions that are confirmed from review of medical records.
Among those findings that are "highly suggestive of abuse" includes point 37, listed in the subsection titled "Residual (healing) injuries to genital/anal tissues" under section E:
Healed hymenal transection/complete hymen cleft, a defect in the hymen below the 3-9 o'clock location that extends to or through the base of the hymen, with no hymenal tissue discernible at that location
This is precisely what Dr. McCann described having observed in JonBenet.
A transection in the inferior half of the hymen of a prepubertal child is a significant finding because it is considered a clear indication of a prior penetrating injury:
  • Multiple studies have noted the presence of hymenal transections only in prepubertal girls with a history of disclosed sexual abuse.
    [ Sara T. Stewart, MD. Hymenal Characteristics in Girls with and without a History of Sexual Abuse, p. 533]
  • Hymenal transections are very rarely seen in prepubertal girls who have not been sexually abused. However, a demonstrated transection, based on multiple studies, is commonly viewed as “a clear but uncommon indicator of past trauma.”
    [Mishori, R., Ferdowsian, H., Naimer, K. et al. The little tissue that couldn’t – dispelling myths about the Hymen’s role in determining sexual history and assault.]
  • Thus a deep notch, transection, or perforation on the inferior portion of the hymen may be considered as a definitive sign of sexual abuse or other trauma.
    [Berenson, et al. A case-control study of anatomic changes resulting from sexual abuse, p. 829]
  • A transection of the posterior hymen between 4 and 8 o’clock in prepubertal girls suggests genital penetrating trauma; however, the presence of this finding is not confirmatory of sexual abuse. Posterior hymenal findings including transections between 4 and 8 o’clock, deep notches, and perforations were not seen in studies of prepubertal girls without a history of genital trauma from sexual abuse included in this systematic review. Therefore, one can conclude that the posterior hymenal findings of transections, deep notches, and perforations are extremely infrequent findings among children without a history of genital trauma from sexual abuse or other means. [...]
    However, because the prevalence of posterior hymenal findings (between 4 and 8 o’clock) such as transections, deep notches, and perforations are near zero in nonabused prepubertal girls, the presence of these examination findings suggests genital trauma from sexual abuse. In the absence of known genital trauma from accidental means, the possibility for sexual abuse must be strongly considered. In a prepubertal girl with a posterior hymenal finding of a transection (between 4 and 8 o’clock), a deep notch (between 4 and 8 o’clock), or a perforation, a report to child protective services should be strongly considered. At a minimum, an examination by a child abuse specialist should occur to confirm these findings and to help provide a careful interpretation regarding the likelihood of sexual abuse.
    [Molly Curtin Berkoff, MD, MPH; Adam J. Zolotor, MD, MPH; Kathi L. Makoroff, MD; et al. Has This Prepubertal Girl Been Sexually Abused?, p. 2790]
If any doctor or medical provider today observed a transection on the inferior half of the hymen of a prepubertal female patient, he/she would be required to make a report for suspected sexual abuse and an explanation would be required for how that healed injury got there. In forty years of research, this finding has not been seen in any other instance besides from penetrating trauma. In prepubertal girls, it is indicative of sexual abuse unless it can be shown otherwise.

What the evidence says

The evidence says JonBenet had been subjected to at least one penetration of the vagina through the hymenal membrane prior to her murder. The penetration caused a complete laceration of the inferior hymenal membrane. After the laceration healed, a transection and other structural changes of the hymen remained.
The age of the prior injury could not be determined, but based on his research on the healing of hymenal lacerations of prepubertal girls, it was McCann's opinion that it was more than ten days old. His research has shown that "most signs of an acute [hymenal laceration] injury were gone within 7 to 10 days." Some of the experts thought the prior injury could have been weeks or months old.
While the evidence could conclusively prove only one prior penetration, the experts believed there had been more than one instance of penetration/sexual contact and that JonBenet's genital findings indicated abuse that had been repeated or ongoing. They were unable to determine how many incidents over what period of time.
Four of the five experts (Sirotnak, Monteleone, Rao, McCann) were confident in their opinion that JonBenet's genital findings were diagnostic of sexual abuse. One (Krugman) could not disagree with that assessment, but lacking certain forensic evidence (i.e., the victim's testimony, the confirmed presence of sperm, or an STI), was unwilling to assume a sexual motive for the abuse. He felt there was evidence only of physical abuse of the genitals.

What else could explain the prior penetration/ hymenal trauma besides sexual abuse?

There are three known causes of transections in the inferior hymenal rim in prepubertal girls — penetrative sexual abuse, accidental penetrating trauma, and surgical intervention.
Most accidental genital injuries sustained by children are straddle-type injuries that involve a fall onto the horizontal bar of a bicycle, jungle gym, or picket fence. This type of accident involves compression of the soft tissues against the bony margins of the pelvic outlet. Trauma is usually limited to the external structures of the genital area (e.g., labia, clitoral hood, fourchette, perineum).
Accidental penetrating or impalement injuries that involve trauma to the hymen are relatively rare:
Of 161 accidental genital injuries reported in the literature, 3.7% involved the hymen.
[Child Abuse: Medical Diagnosis and Management, 4th ed. Antoinette Laskey and Andrew Sirotnak (eds.), p. 359]
However, they do occur and the resulting injuries can mimic those of sexual abuse. In such cases, it is important that the cause of the injury be confirmed.
Whether an acute or healed genital or anal injury is identified, it is incumbent on the medical professional to obtain a complete history of the nature of the injury. [...]
Key differences in the history of accidental trauma, such as a straddle injury, are that accidental injuries are more commonly observed by a third party, medical attention is sought immediately after the injury, a scene-of-injury visit confirms the plausibility of the injuries and the accompanying history, and the pattern of injury is consistent with the history.
[Child Abuse: Medical Diagnosis and Management, 4th ed. Antoinette Laskey and Andrew Sirotnak (eds.), p. 359]
If JonBenet's prior hymenal injury was the result of an accident or a past surgical procedure, it should be reflected in her medical records and easy to prove. An accidental penetrating injury that results in a complete laceration of the hymen is considered severe, one that would be painful and cause bleeding. It would be expected that most parents or caretakers would seek medical attention for their child's injury.
We know the Ramseys were not timid or frugal when it came to getting medical attention for JonBenet's injuries and ailments. We have records of her being seen by the doctor for various bumps, falls, and injuries, such as a bent fingernail from a fall, a bruised nose from faceplanting at a grocery store, a bump on the brow from a tripping fall, and a small cut to the cheek from a golf club swing. If JonBenet had sustained an accidental genital injury that resulted in a severe laceration, I find it very hard to believe she would not have been taken to the doctor for such an injury when she was taken for lesser injuries and ailments.
Clearly, there was nothing in her medical records that could account for such an injury or the Ramseys would have provided it to police.
(Continue to Part 2: The experts, responses to dissenting opinions and common myths, etc.)
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2020.09.26 06:44 AutoModerator FIA Formula 2 Championship: Sochi - Feature Race Discussion

FIA F2 Russian Grand Prix - Feature Race

F1FS Wiki: FIA F2 Guide 2020 Drivers & Teams 2020 Calendar

Session Times

All times are in MSK (UTC+3:00)
  • Practice: Fri 25 Sep 2020, 09:35 (UTC+3)
  • Qualifying: Fri 25 Sep 2020, 14:00 (UTC+3)
  • Feature Race: Sat 26 Sep 2020, 10:15 (UTC+3)
  • Sprint Race: Sun 27 Sep 2020, 10:55 (UTC+3)
You can convert the session times to your local time via
A full time table of the weekends events can be found here: Link

Sochi Autodrom

Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia
Circuit Diagram
Length: 5.848 km (3.634 mi)
Turns: 18
  • Feature Race: 28 laps - 163.744 km (Mandatory pit-stop)
  • Sprint Race: 21 laps - 122.808 km


2019 Pole Time: 1:47.440 ( Nyck de Vries, ART Grand Prix)
2019 Fastest Lap:
  • Feature Race: 1:51.104 ( Luca Ghiotto, UNI-Virtuosi)
  • Sprint Race: 1:52.272 ( Nicholas Latifi, DAMS)
2019 Winner:
  • Feature Race: Nyck de Vries, ART Grand Prix
  • Sprint Race: Luca Ghiotto, UNI-Virtuosi


2020 Pole Time: 1:48.988 ( Yuki Tsunoda, Carlin)
2020 Fastest Lap:
  • Feature Race:
  • Sprint Race:
2020 Winner:
  • Feature Race:
  • Sprint Race:

Provisional Starting Grid

Pos Car Driver Team Time Gap
1 #7 Y. Tsunoda Carlin 1:48.688 -
2 #8 J. Daruvala Carlin 1:48.694 0.006
3 #20 M. Schumacher PREMA Racing 1:48.883 0.195
4 #4 C. Ilott UNI-Virtuosi 1:49.047 0.359
5 #25 L. Ghiotto Hitech Grand Prix 1:49.230 0.542
6 #6 C. Lundgaard ART Grand Prix 1:49.252 0.564
7 #21 R. Shwartzman PREMA Racing 1:49.284 0.596
8 #9 J. Aitken Campos Racing 1:49.306 0.618
9 #3 G. Zhou UNI-Virtuosi 1:49.311 0.623
10 #24 N. Mazepin Hitech Grand Prix 1:49.474 0.786
11 #1 J. Vips DAMS 1:49.639 0.951
12 #12 P. Piquet Charouz Racing System 1:49.680 0.992
13 #11 L. Delétraz Charouz Racing System 1:49.699 1.011
14 #5 M. Armstrong ART Grand Prix 1:49.869 1.181
15 #17 J. Hughes BWT HWA RACELAB 1:49.962 1.274
16 #15 F. Drugovich MP Motorsport 1:49.976 1.288
17 #2 D. Ticktum DAMS 1:50.214 1.526
18 #23 M. Sato Trident 1:50.349 1.661
19 #22 R. Nissany Trident 1:50.456 1.768
20 #16 A. Markelov BWT HWA RACELAB 1:50.488 1.800
21 #14 G. Alesi MP Motorsport 1:50.943 2.255
22 #10 G. Samaia Campos Racing 1:51.375 2.687

Live Timing & Streaming

The FIA F2 championship has it's own official Live Timing services.
  • Live Timing: Here.
  • List of Broadcasting Channels: Here
For Information about streaming, please visit /motorsportsstreams. Thank you.

F1FS Guide

New to FIA Formula 2? You can read our dedicated guide HERE, or watch our video guide from last year HERE!


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On-Demand Race Replays

You can access previous races of this series and more here: F1FS Race Replays

Top 5

Drivers' Championship
Pos. Change Driver Points
1 Mick Schumacher 161
2 Callum Ilott 153
3 1 Christian Lundgaard 145
4 1 Robert Shwartzman 140
5 Nikita Mazepin 127
Teams' Championship
Pos. Change Team Points
1 PREMA Racing 301
2 UNI-Virtuosi Racing 261
3 Hitech Grand Prix 216
4 ART Grand Prix 181
5 Carlin 149
Full championship standings here: Link
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PatekORG's second season is 1 week away!!!!

Our first season was crazy and chaotic and ended up with Ben winning the prize of being our first Sole Survivor! For our second season, we are shifting from the savannas of Kenya to the grand Pacific in the tiny island nation of Tokelau! We are again looking for 16 new and eager castaways to play on another excellent season!

What we offer:
-a fair, balanced, and planned-out season that will move smoothly and efficiently with an active and available host as well as a few balanced but exciting twists along the way

-a variety of fun and accessible challenges, with very few if any live ones, both on and off server that appeal to a diverse range of skillsets

-player rankings, edgic, episode titles and summaries, voting charts, and a draft for spectators and also a wiki that I'm currently setting up

-the opportunity to become an alumni for a potentially long-running ORG!

If you’re looking for a long-term ORG, come check us out! Our start date is on October 1st, **meaning applications close on September 30th, but we may push the date up/back depending on the amount and quality of our applicants!
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2020.09.26 06:08 AutoModerator DAILY COVID-19 MEGATHREAD - September 26, 2020

All Coronavirus (COVID-19) links, discussions and related pics belong in this thread.
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The New York Blood Center Enterprises (NYBCe) strongly urges individuals who feel healthy and well to make an appointment at a donor center or blood drive to give blood, platelets and plasma. Walk-ins are also welcome. For more information, visit:
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To see COVID-19 Megathread Discussions from previous days, please click here.
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2020.09.26 06:06 AutoModerator Super Formula Lights: Okayama - Race 1 Discussion

Super Formula Lights Okayama - Race 1

F1FS Wiki: National F3 Guide 2020 Drivers & Teams 2020 Calendar

Session Times

An event timetable of this weekends events can be found here.
All times are in JST (UTC +9:00)
Session Local Time Laps
Qualifying Sat 09:35 -
Race 1 Sat 15:30 18
Race 2 Sun 08:35 25
You can convert the session times to your local time by follow the following link.

Okayama International Circuit

Mimasaka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan
Circuit Diagram
Length: 3.703 km (2.300 mi)
Turns: 13
Cars Entered: 12
Entry List: Here.

Live Timing & Streaming

The Super Formula Lights Championship has it's own official Live Timing & Streaming services. [Japanese Only]


For up to date information regarding this series, follow these Twitter accounts:


We have a Discord server for the subreddit, check it out here: Link


Full championship standings can be found here.

Previous Races

You can access previous races of this series and more here: F1FS Race Replays
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2020.09.26 05:56 tengrrl Nominations: Special Election for Midwest Writing Centers Association Board

Hello folks - anyone out there from a writing center at an institution in the Midwest and want to be connected to other folks in the region? Come join the MWCA Board!
We have an unexpected opening on theMidwest Writing Centers Association(MWCA) Executive Board and are nowholding a special election for an ‘at-large’ board member! As an at-large member of the MWCA board, you would regularly attend monthly hour-long meetings and help out with projects that come up on an as-needed basis. An at-large member can then transition into a leadership role at any point during their 3-year term. Graduate students are welcome and encouraged to apply!
We will beaccepting nominations through Oct. 9th.If you or someone you know would like to join the Board, please share this email! To make a nomination, please send an email expressing your interest and include ashort bio or statement about yourself and your interests to Meredith Steck at[[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).What can you include in your short bio? Below this email, I’ve copied the bios from our last election and have linked tothis articlefrom the MAWCA which describes a couple of bio conventions. Once we have the bios, we will send them out to our membership for a vote in mid-October and the new board member could anticipate attending our November meeting.
We know everyone is SUPER DUPER stressed right now and it might be hard to think about adding yet another commitment to your schedule. Just know that the commitment level for an at-large member starts low and can expand as you want it to. Being on the board is also a nice way to make some new professional connections in the region! If you want to know more about board membership, I wrote ashort blog postabout my experience (just ignore the dates and contact info since all that has changed).
Looking forward to reading your bios,
Meredith Steck (she/her), on behalf of the MWCA Board

Some Selected Bios from our Last Election:
Sample 1
XXXXX directs the writing center at XXXXX, where she works one-on-one with student writers, teaches the writing tutor education class, and helps support and educate faculty teaching writing-intensive courses. She has presented at IWCA, MWCA, 4Cs, and the Watson conference on writing center-related topics ranging from why theory matters in tutor education courses to why students like using the word “flow” to talk about writing. Before joining XXXXX, she was the writing center director and an associate professor of English at the XXXXX. She earned her PhD at the XXXXX, where she worked as a writing center instructor and as assistant director of the Writing Fellows program. XXXXX would bring to the Board a keen interest in helping to develop and manage the MWCA and conference websites and a commitment to both maintaining the MWCA conference and exploring how MWCA can best connect and support members in non-conference years.

Sample 2
XXXXX is an innovative educator, writing center supervisor, and founder of two writing center community organizations. In her 9+ years of writing center experience, she progressed into a supervisory role, first at XXXXXX and currently at XXXXX. She holds a B.A. in English from XXXXX and an M.A. in English with a specialization in the Teaching of Writing from XXXXX. During her time at XXXXX, she has developed online tutoring services, such as synchronous tutoring, increased campus-wide participation and engagement through the extended orientation model, and cultivated the professional development of writing center tutors. XXXXX has been active in revitalizing the XXXXXX, a cohort of St. Louis writing center professionals, and recently hosted the second annual GWCA conference at her community college, where many of her tutors presented on tutoring strategies. She has presented at IWCA, MWCA, and GWCA conferences on motivation of student writers, the learning commons, and writing across the curriculum. In a recent publication, “XXXXX”, she shows how to apply writing center pedagogy into the classroom. Seeing the transformative impact of writing centers encouraged XXXXX to start a nonprofit organization, XXXXX, which integrates writing programs and writing centers in local St. Louis public schools. She continues to advance the writing center discipline through her work at XXXXX, nonprofit organizations, and her publications.

Sample 3
I began working in the XXXXX in 2016 as a graduate assistant and then, in 2017, was hired on as a full-time staff member. My specialties are assessment, data, international students, and how writing centers improve student success and retention on campus.

Sample 4
XXXXXX is the Assistant Director of XXXXX. She holds an M.A. in English from XXXXX and a B.A. in English and Medieval Studies from XXXXX. As a medievalist in the writing center, her research in literary studies is focused in the Middle Ages, particularly in the work of Geoffrey Chaucer and Early British literature and culture. However, at the heart of her work is the instruction of writing, the significance of how we talk about writing, and first-generation college student experiences. As the Assistant Director, XXXXX has contributed to the campus-wide efforts to help first-gens succeed by collaborating with campus partners to pilot workshops and outreach events. Since writing center publications about working-class and first-generation students are largely anecdotal and sparse, XXXXX is actively working to make concentrated efforts to research and publish on how centers play a key role in positively informing XXXXX programming and inclusion initiatives. Writing centers serve as the nexus of all things writing-related on campus. XXXXX's work in developing an embedded tutoring program at XXXXX, mentorship of undergraduate research, and innovative vision of how centers can become more inclusive spaces showcase her interest and investment in a long-term, sustainable future for the center.
submitted by tengrrl to WPAannouncements [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 05:56 AutoModerator F4 German Championship: Nurburgring II - Race 2 Discussion

ADAC Formula 4 Nurburgring II - Race 2

F1FS Wiki: FIA Formula 4 Guide 2020 Drivers & Teams 2020 Calendar

Session Times

A .pdf of the weekends timetable including other events can be found here.
All times are in CEST (UTC +2:00)
Session Local Time
Free Practice 1 Thu 09:15
Free Practice 2 Thu 10:00
Qualifying 1 Thu 11:35
Qualifying 2 Fri 08:10
Race 1 Fri 15:05
Race 2 Sat 08:25
Race 3 Sat 13:10
You can convert the session times to your local time by follow the following link.


Nürburg, Germany
Circuit Diagram
Length: 4.569 km (2.839 mi)
Turns: 13
Length: 30 Minutes (Max)
Cars Entered: 13
Entry List: Here

Live Streaming & Timing

The ADAC Formula 4 series has it's own official Live Streaming & Live Timing services:

F1FS Guide

New to FIA Formula 4? You can watch our dedicated video guide that introduces the category HERE!


For up to date information regarding this series, follow these Twitter accounts:
  • ADAC F4: No official account, use the hashtag #ADACF4
  • F1FS Twitter: @F1FeederSeries


We have a Discord server for the subreddit, check it out here: Link

On-Demand Race Replays

You can access previous races of this series here: 2019 ADAC F4 Race Replays


Full championship standings here: Link
submitted by AutoModerator to F1FeederSeries [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 05:45 kriswascher97 [OFFICIAL] 2020 ADAC TOTAL 24H Nurburgring - Pre Race Thread (Supports/Warm Up)

Green Flag for ADAC F4 Race 2: 06:25 GMT, 08:25 local, 02:25 ET, 16:10 AEST
Green Flag for FIA WTCR Race 2: 08:00 GMT, 10:00 local, 04:00 ET, 18:00 AEST
Green Flag for ADAC TOTAL 24H Nurburgring Warm Up: 09:15 GMT, 11:15 local, 05:15 ET, 19:15 AEST
Green Flag for ADAC F4 Race 3: 11:10 GMT, 13:10 local, 7:10 ET, 21:10 AEST

Session Length for both ADAC F4 Races 2 and 3: 30 Minutes

Session Length for FIA WTCR Race 2: 3 Laps

Session Length for ADAC TOTAL 24H Nurburgring Warm Up: 1 Hour


DISCLAIMER: Please refrain from discussing WTCR. That goes in

/Touring_Cars We put times and streams in here to help people follow along EVERYTHING throughout the day. ADAC F4 also, as thats covered in F1FeederSeries

Social Media
Twitter Hashtags: #24Nurburgring
Jump into /WEC's Discord! Normally way more active than the discussion thread!
Remember to sort by "new" to stay up to date!
submitted by kriswascher97 to wec [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 05:10 TimelyPlant8 PopularMMOs and his relationship drama

Posted this in HobbyDrama and someone told me to post this here. Thanks, u/PUBLIQclopAccountant .

What is Minecraft?

Minecraft is a multiplayer sandbox video game where players can break (“mine”), make (“craft”), and place blocks.
Minecraft has recently made a resurgence, almost reaching interest levels comparable to that of the Golden Age of Minecraft. (Just typing this up gives me a rush of nostalgia for Team Crafted, which collapsed in 2014. But that’s a drama for another time.)

Beginning (by C418)

PopularMMOs is a Minecraft Youtuber from Golden Age of Minecraft. You may recognize him as the creator of Minecraft series such as Mob Battles, Epic Proportions, and Lucky Block Challenge Games. Before 2019, he almost never collaborated with anyone besides SuperGirlyGamer.
SuperGirlyGamer, whose channel is called GamingWithJen, has been in almost every video uploaded to PopularMMOs’ channel ever. She and PopularMMOS have friendly banter in their videos and vlogs.
PopularMMOs and SuperGirlyGamer seemed like the perfect couple. They met in high school when doing community service for an animal shelter, hid together in closets through several hurricanes, and married in 2015.

The Breakup

In early 2019, SuperGirlyGamer was nominated for the Shorty Awards. PopularMMOs encouraged his viewers to vote for her and celebrated when she won in May 2019.
LITERALLY THE NEXT DAY, PopularMMOS and SuperGirlyGamer announced that they had divorced in March 2019. Jen explained that it was important for her to have kids, while Pat didn’t want any. They also mentioned personal, private reasons behind this decision. It came as a total surprise; there had been no indication that there was marriage problems.
The comment section was flooded with fans mourning and thanking them both for childhood memories.

New Channel, New Friends

PopularMMOs and SuperGirlyGamer announced that even though they would still occasionally record together, they would also focus on new relationships. PopularMMOs created a second channel called Pat & Crainer in June 2019. Here, he started uploading additional Minecraft videos with Minecraft Youtuber, MrCrainer.
However, MrCrainer got into some drama that deserves its own writeup in late 2019. It’s possible that PopularMMOs wanted to avoided the drama, and so MrCrainer stopped appearing in the second channel after October 2019.
Meanwhile, on PopularMMOs’ main channel, Eleni, who was new to both Youtube and Minecraft, started recording together with PopularMMOs in December 2019. PopularMMOs referred to Eleni as a friend, and she continued to be his videos. SuperGirlyGamer still continued to record with PopularMMOs, albeit less frequently.

Achievement get: Into Fire

In February 2020, PopularMMOs’ second channel also started uploading videos with Eleni in them. Since MrCrainer no longer were in these videos, PopularMMOs renamed the channel Pat & Friends.
A month later, PopularMMOS uploaded a video to his main channel titled "We really need to talk…" PopularMMOS explained his second channel name change and responded to fan reactions to Eleni.
PopularMMOs had spent over 5 years recording with SuperGirlyGamer, and when he started recording with Eleni, people naturally started make comparisons, and reminisce about SuperGirlyGamer. Videos with Eleni in them had lower like-to-dislike ratios. Eleni started receiving hate from a small percentage of SuperGirlyGamer’s fans. PopularMMOs spent the video asking fans to give his friends (referring to Eleni) a chance and not to compare her to SuperGirlyGamer.
In May 2020, PopularMMOS uploaded a video titled "Minecraft: BEDWARS WITH ELENI & EX WIFE JEN VS ME!" This caused a lot of old resentment towards Eleni to resurface. Pat released a video the next day asking fans again not to hate, inform them that SuperGirlyGamer didn’t want hate towards Eleni either, and that Eleni is not replacing anyone.
The next video revealed that Eleni had been receiving threats and insults on Instagram.
The harassment didn't stop and PopularMMOS makes yet another video defending Eleni, saying that he will not reveal if he is or is not dating her. Even SuperGirlyGamer appears in a video in June making it clear that she had no beef with Eleni, and it’s not Eleni’s fault that she is recording less with PopularMMOs. Basically, they wanted no more hate and drama.
It is also around this point PopularMMOs’ second channel is renamed Pat & Eleni.

Aww Man

A few months passed, and it seemed that the pleas for no drama had worked. PopularMMOs continued uploading about 3 videos every week… until he didn’t.
In the second half of July 2020, he only uploaded 2 videos, one of which explained what was going on. Basically, SuperGirlyGamer moved out of state and Eleni was on vacation with her family. Eleni and PopularMMOS had also pre-recorded some videos for his second chanel (Pat & Eleni). So fret not, viewers! All will be normal soon.
It was for a whole 3 weeks. After an upload on August 26, PopularMMOS did not upload for 17 days- something unprecedented (at least within my memory.) In the comments, he explained that he had just broken up with Eleni.
During the 2 weeks of inactivity, Eleni (on Instagram and in a Discord server) made several allegations:
On September 21, PopularMMOs posted this video explaining the situation. He says:

Advancement made: The End?

Popular opinion has now shifted against Eleni, with many new comments on the aforementioned videos saying they always knew that this would happen or that the videos aged poorly for Eleni. PopularMMO’s exposé video was trending in the Gaming Youtube section. His second channel has been renamed back to Pat and Friends. Eleni’s Instagram and Twitter has been set private.
Only time will tell if PopularMMOs will recover and start collaborating with others again.
Tldr: Minecraft Youtuber breaks up with wife, making the fanbase angry at his new girl friend, who he defends. Then they break up. Ex-Girl friend claims they never dated and that the Youtuber is mean. Youtuber counters with video exposing her to be a manipulative liar, and fanbase feels vindicated.
submitted by TimelyPlant8 to youtubedrama [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 04:45 I-Dsert Hard time finding friends

Hey everyone. I am guy having a hard time making friends at UofM and its really getting to me. I failed to find “my people” freshmen year and now its sophomore year and it’s even harder due to the pandemic. I have joined student orgs, did that pal pact thing, swiped for hours on tinder and other dating apps, joined WSN, all to no success. I just want to find someone who gets me, have fun with, etc. Be it a gf or friends (I think a gf can come after you get to know people), I just need someone else. I do pretty well by myself but it’s just getting too lonely. Right now I’m okay but I’m afraid it might get worse. Anyways, any advice is more than welcome, to help me get out of this loneliness hole... or even better if you wanna reach out and chat I’m more than open to that. Hopefully we hit it off and get to meet each other :)
submitted by I-Dsert to uofm [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 04:31 Kathleenccc Spread the word!

Here's the link for the Early voting polling locations](
10/15-last day to register online
10/16-10/29-can register online but vote with Provisional votes. (Meaning you have to bring your paperwork for identification purposes )
10/17-10/30-Early voting at any location in the county. There are 49 places. (9 AM-7 PM)
11/3 11/3 ELECTION DAY: 159 locations in the county from 7 am-7 pm.
10/07- election department will start mailing vouchers. You can fill out your vote and vote to any voting location or postage.
- If you don't want to vote by mail, you can bring your received mail ballot to any polling location and vote there.
- if you lose it or don't have a letter received, and want to go to some places to vote, then you will have to sign the pledge at any polling election
submitted by Kathleenccc to UNLV [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 04:29 Kathleenccc Spread the word!

Here's the link for the Early voting polling locations](
10/15-last day to register online
10/16-10/29-can register online but vote with Provisional votes. (Meaning you have to bring your paperwork for identification purposes )
10/17-10/30-Early voting at any location in the county. There are 49 places. (9 AM-7 PM)
11/3 11/3 ELECTION DAY: 159 locations in the county from 7 am-7 pm.
10/07- election department will start mailing vouchers. You can fill out your vote and vote to any voting location or postage.
- If you don't want to vote by mail, you can bring your received mail ballot to any polling location and vote there.
- if you lose it or don't have a letter received, and want to go to some places to vote, then you will have to sign the pledge at any polling election
submitted by Kathleenccc to unr [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 04:28 dracoflar Test

layout: post title: "What's new in macOS 11, Big Sur!" date: 2020-10-13 7:00:00 -0600

categories: Hackintosh updates

It's that time of year again, and we've got a new version of macOS on our hands! This year we've finally jumped off the 10.xx naming scheme and now going to 11! And with that, a lot has changed under the hood in macOS.
As with previous years, we'll be going over what's changed in macOS and what you should be aware of as a macOS and Hackintosh enthusiast.

Has Nvidia Support finally arrived?

Sadly every year I have to answer the obligatory question, no there is no new Nvidia support. Currently Nvidia's Kepler line is the only natively supported gen.
However macOS 11 makes some interesting changes to the boot process, specifically moving GPU drivers into stage 2 of booting. Why this is relevant is due to Apple's initial reason for killing off Web Drivers: Secure boot. What I mean is that secure boot cannot work with Nvidia's Web Drivers due to how early Nvidia's drivers have to initialize at, and thus Apple refused to sign the binaries. With Bg Sur, there could be 3rd party GPUs however the chances are still super slim but slightly higher than with 10.14 and 10.15.

What has changed on the surface

A whole new iOS-like UI

Love it or hate it, we've got a new UI more reminiscent of iOS 14 with hints of skeuomorphism(A somewhat subtle call back to previous mac UIs which have neat details in the icons)

macOS Snapshotting

A feature initially baked into APFS back in 2017 with the release of macOS 10.13, High Sierra, now macOS's main System volume has become both read-only and snapshotted. What this means is:
  • 3rd parties have a much more difficult time modifying the system volume, allowing for greater security
  • OS updates can now be installed while you're using the OS, similar to how iOS handles updates
  • Time Machine can now more easily perform backups, without file inconsistencies with HFS Plus while you were using the machines
However there are a few things to note with this new enforcement of snapshotting:
  • OS snapshots are not calculated as used space, instead being labeled as purgeable space
  • Disabling macOS snapshots for the root volume with break software updates, and can corrupt data if one is applied

What has changed under the hood

Quite a few things actually! Both in good and bad ways unfortunately.

New Kernel Cache system: KernelCollections!

So for the past 15 years, macOS has been using the Prelinked Kernel as a form of Kernel and Kext caching. And with macOS Big Sur's new Read-only, snapshot based system volume, a new version of caching has be developed: KernelCollections!
How this differs to previous OSes:
  • Kexts can no longer be hot-loaded, instead requiring a reboot to load with kmutil
  • The Secure Boot and standard kernel are now one(ie. no more dedicated Immutable Kernel)
  • Symbols are no longer required
The last point is the most important part, as this is what we use for kext injection in OpenCore. Currently Apple has left symbols in place seemingly for debugging purposes however this is a bit worrying as Apple could outright remove symbols in later versions of macOS. But for macOS 11, Big Sur's cycle, we'll be good on that end however we'll be keeping an eye on macOS 12.

New Kernel Requirements

With this update, the AvoidRuntimeDefrag Booter quirk in OpenCore broke. Because of this, the macOS kernel will fall flat when trying to boot. Reason for this is due to cpu_count_enabled_logical_processors requiring the MADT (APIC) table, and so OpenCore will now ensure this table is made accessible to the kernel. Users will however need a build of OpenCore 0.6.0 with commit bb12f5f or newer to resolve this issue.
To check your OpenCore version, run the following in terminal:
sh nvram 4D1FDA02-38C7-4A6A-9CC6-4BCCA8B30102:opencore-version
If you're not up-to-date, see here on how to upgrade OpenCore: Updating OpenCore, Kexts and macOS

Broken Kexts in Big Sur

Unfortunately with the aforementioned KernelCollections, some kexts have unfortunately broken or have been hindered in some way. The main kexts that currently have issues are anything relying on Lilu's userspace patching functionality:
Thankfully most important kexts rely on kernelspace patcher which is now in fact working again.

MSI Navi installer Bug Resolved

For those receiving boot failures in the installer due to having an MSI Navi GPU installed, macOS Big Sur has finally resolved this issue!

New AMD OS X Kernel Patches

For those running on AMD-Based CPUs, you'll want to also update your kernel patches as well since patches have been rewritten for macOS Big Sur support:

Other notable Hackintosh issues

Several SMBIOS have been dropped

Big Sur dropped a few Ivy Bridge and Haswell based SMBIOS from macOS, so see below that yours wasn't dropped:
  • iMac14,3 and older
    • Note iMac14,4 is still supported
  • MacPro5,1 and older
  • MacMini6,x and older
  • MacBook7,1 and older
  • MacBookAir5,x and older
  • MacBookPro10,x and older
If your SMBIOS was supported in Catalina and isn't included above, you're good to go! We also have a more in-depth page here: Choosing the right SMBIOS
For those wanting a simple translation for their Ivy and Haswell Machines:
  • iMac13,2 should transition over to using MacPro6,1
  • iMac14,2 and iMac14,3 should transition over to using iMac15,1
  • iMac14,1 should transition over to iMac14,4

Dropped hardware

Currently only certain hardware has been officially dropped:
  • "Official" Consumer Ivy Bridge Support(U, H and S series)
    • These CPUs will still boot without much issue, but note that no Macs are supported with consumer Ivy Bridge in Big Sur.
    • Ivy Bridge-E CPUs are still supported thanks to being in MacPro6,1
  • Ivy Bridge iGPUs.
    • HD 4000 and HD 2500, initial developer beta forgot to remove drivers but more than likely to be removed in later updates.
  • BCM94331 based Wifi cards.
    • See Wireless Buyers guide for potential cards to upgrade to.
    • Note, while AirPortBrcm4360.kext has been removed in Big Sur, support for the 4360 series cards have been moved into AirPortBrcmNIC.kext, which still exists.

Extra long install process

Due to the new snapshot-based OS, installation now takes some extra time with sealing. If you get stuck at Forcing CS_RUNTIME for entitlement, do not shutdown. This will corrupt your install and break the sealing process, so please be patient:

X79 and X99 Boot issues

With macOS 11, Big Sur, IOPCIFamily went through a decent rewriting causing many of X99 patches to break and many X79 boards fail to boot as well with IOPCIFamily kernel panics. Currently no solution is available so we recommend staying on macOS Catalina until issues have been resolved.

New RTC requirements

With macOS Big Sur, AppleRTC has become much more picky on making sure your OEM correctly mapped the RTC regions in your ACPI tables. This is mainly relevant on Intel's HEDT series boards, I documented how to patch said RTC regions in OpenCorePkg:
For those having boot issues on X299, this section is super important, you'll likely get stuck at PCI Configuration Begins

SATA Issues

For some reason, Apple removed the AppleIntelPchSeriesAHCI class from AppleAHCIPort.kext. Due to the outright removal of the class, trying to spoof to another ID (generally done by SATA-unsupported.kext) can fail for many and create instability for others. * A partial fix is to block Big Sur's AppleAHCIPort.kext and inject Catalina's version with any conflicting symbols being patched. You can find a sample kext here: Catalina's patched AppleAHCIPort.kext * This will work in both Catalina and Big Sur so you can remove SATA-unsupported if you want. However we recommend setting the MinKernel value to 20.0.0 to avoid any potential issues.

Legacy GPU Patches currently unavailable

Due to major changes in many frameworks around GPUs, those using ASentientBot's legacy GPU patches are currently out of luck. We either recommend users with these older GPUs stay on Catalina until further developments arise or buy an officially supported GPU

What’s new in the Hackintosh scene?

Dortania: a new organization has appeared

As many of you have probably noticed, a new organization focusing on documenting the hackintoshing process has appeared. Originally under my alias, Khronokernel, I started to transition my guides over to this new family as a way to concentrate the vast amount of information around Hackintoshes to both ease users and give a single trusted source for information.
We work quite closely with the community and developers to ensure information's correct, up-to-date and of the best standards. While not perfect in every way, we hope to be the go-to resource for reliable Hackintosh information.
And for the times our information is either outdated, missing context or generally needs improving, we have our bug tracker to allow the community to more easily bring attention to issues and speak directly with the authors:

Dortania's Build Repo

For those who either want to run the lastest builds of a kext or need an easy way to test old builds of something, Dortania's Build Repo is for you!
Kexts here are built right after commit, and currently supports most of Acidanthera's kexts and some 3rd party devs as well. If you'd like to add support for more kexts, feel free to PR: Build Repo source

True legacy macOS Support!

As of OpenCore's latest versioning, 0.6.2, you can now boot every version of x86-based builds of OS X/macOS! A huge achievement on GoldFish64's part, we now support every major version of kernel cache both 32 and 64-bit wise. This means machines like Yonah and newer should work great with OpenCore and you can even relive the old days of OS X like OS X 10.4!
And Dortania guides have been updated accordingly to accommodate for builds of those eras, we hope you get as much enjoyment going back as we did working on this project!

Intel Wireless: More native than ever!

Another amazing step forward in the Hackintosh community, near-native Intel Wifi support! Thanks to the endless work on many contributors of the OpenIntelWireless project, we can now use Apple's built-in IO80211 framework to have near identical support to those of Broadcom wireless cards including features like network access in recovery and control center support.
For more info on the developments, please see the itlwm project on GitHub: itlwm
  • Note, native support requires the AirportItlwm.kext and SecureBootModel enabled on OpenCore. Alternatively you can force IO80211Family.kext to ensure AirportItlwm works correctly.
  • Airdrop support currently is also not implemented

Clover's revival? A frankestien of a bootloader

As many in the community have seen, a new bootloader popped up back in April 2019 called OpenCore. This bootloader was made by the same people behind projects such as Lilu, WhateverGreen, AppleALC and many other extremely important utilities for the hackintosh community. OpenCore's design had been properly thought out with security auditing and proper road mapping laid down, it was clear that this was to be the next stage of hackintoshing for the years we have left with x86.
And now lets bring this back to the old crowd favorite, Clover. Clover has been having a rough time of recent both with the community and stability wise, with many devs jumping ship to OpenCore and Clover's stability breaking more and more with C++ rewrites, it was clear Clover was on its last legs. Interestingly enough, the community didn't want Clover to die, similarly to how Chameleon lived on through Enoch. And thus, we now have the Clover OpenCore integration project.
The goal is to combine OpenCore into Clover allowing the project to live a bit longer, as Clover's current state can no longer boot macOS Big Sur or older versions of OS X such as 10.6. As of writing, this project seems to be a bit confusing as there seems to be little reason to actually support Clover. Many of Clover's properties have feature-parity in OpenCore and trying to combine both C++ and C ruins many of the features and benefits either languages provide.

Death of x86 and the future of Hackintoshing

With macOS Big Sur, a big turning point is about to happen with Apple and their Macs. As we know it, Apple will be shifting to in-house designed Apple Silicon Macs(Really just ARM) and thus x86 machines will slowly be phased out of their lineup within 2 years.
What does this mean for both x86 based Macs and Hackintoshing in general? Well we can expect about 5 years of proper OS support for the iMac20,x series which released earlier this year with an extra 2 years of security updates. After this, we Apple will most likely stop shipping x86 builds of macOS and hackintoshing as we know it will have passed away.
For those still in denial and hope something like ARM Hackintoshes will arrive, please consider the following:
  • We have yet to see an iPhone "Hackintosh" and thus the likely hood of an ARM Hackintosh is unlikely as well
  • Apple's use of "Apple silicon" hints that ARM is not actually what future macs will be running, instead we'll see highly customized chips based off ARM
    • For example, Apple will be heavily relying on hardware features such as WX, kernel memory protection, Pointer Auth, etc for security and thus both macOS and Applications will be dependant on it. This means hackintoshing on bare-metal(without a VM) will become extremely difficult without copious amounts of work
    • Also keep in mind Apple Silicon will no longer be UEFI-based like Intel Macs are, meaning a huge amount of work would also be required on this end as well
So while we may be heart broken the journey is coming to a stop in the somewhat near future, hackintoshing will still be a time piece in Apple's history. So enjoy it now while we still can, and we here at Dortania will still continuing supporting the community with our guides till the very end!

Getting ready for macOS 11, Big Sur

This will be your short run down if you skipped the above:
  • Many Ivy Bridge and Haswell SMBIOS were dropped
    • See above for what SMBIOS to choose
  • Ivy Bridge iGPUs were dropped
  • BCM94331 support was dropped
  • X79 and X99 no longer boot
  • X299 requires SSDT-RTC0-RANGE
    • See above how to make it
  • AMD CPUs need their kernel patches updated
    • See above for new patches
  • OpenCore 0.6.0 or newer is required to boot
  • Latest releases of all your kexts
For the last 2, see here on how to update: Updating OpenCore, Kexts and macOS
submitted by dracoflar to u/dracoflar [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 04:22 Emtech1 Rachel Bryk’s suicide and her connection to Narcissa

In Zack’s thread the other day, mdr4life brought up how Rachel’s suicide is one of “the most overlooked pieces to the puzzle” of Narcissa. I have also received a few messages from who were unaware of Rachel and her connection to Narcissa, so I thought I would summarize it for you.
If you are familiar with emulation, no doubt you would have already heard of Dolphin emulator for the GameCube and Wii. Rachel Bryk was one of the most active Dolphin developers and specifically developed a lot of tools to facilitate tool-assisted speedruns. She also made contributions to savestates, netplay (online functionality) and was active within the community forums. Rachel suffered from chronic diseases (fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis) which lead to her taking her life on April 23rd, 2015. There were also other contributing factors such as online harassment which she suffered from, but according to those close to her, it was mostly caused by the constant physical pain she had to endure.
Infamously before her death, she posted on /emugen/ saying that she would kill herself soon. Rachel had been planning to this for some time. Here is an archive of her before she passed. She had also posted about it on her Twitter so her followers were already aware of her intentions. Again, it was mostly due to her chronic conditions, but the harassment did not help. NEVERDOORS/TaylorTotFTW actually (one of the men Adrian cheated with and dated immediately after Narcissa and her broke up) admitted to contributing to her harassment, and even was called out for it by Cronikeys.
It is hard to properly substantiate how close Rachel and Narcissa were due to the latter’s twitter being deleted as well as Rachel’s twitter account being permanently on protected. Here is what remains of a tweet thread where Rachel tweeted about wish listing a dildo she liked on amazon, and Narcissa/Cosmo purchased it for her. Note: Feiqn was Rachel’s fiancé. Feiqn seemed to be close with Narcissa at this time, and they tweeted at each other several times. Feiqn even called herself the “female Cosmo” and they tweeted back and forth several times. Narcissa also donated $100 to Rachel’s memorial fund, where part of the proceeds would be used to fly Feiqn to the funeral.
The infamous totodile_dundee incident was a day (23rd April) before Rachel’s suicide. At this time, we can safely assume that Narcissa would have known what Rachel planned to do the next day. This clip was posted on /speedrun which prompted Narcissa to apologize for her behavior and admit that she had been “kinda depressed lately.” However, we must also recognize that Narcissa’s relationship with Adrian was declining at this point. This may have been due to Adrian growing increasingly open about her infidelity, and further concerns from his fans asking why Narcissa allowed Adrian to have another man over. On April 29th, 2015 Narcissa stated again that she was struggling mentally, and was considering quitting speedrunning.
From what evidence we do have left, we can see that Rachel and Narcissa were good friends, and her mental health was deteriorating in the month that Rachel took her life. We can imagine that knowing of her friend’s plans, and her inability to prevent her tragic death would have been a tremendous burden for Narcissa to carry. Additionally, knowing that Adrian’s side guy NEVERDOORS was one of the people involved in harassing her online could have been a large contributing factor in Narcissa’s mental health deteriorating, and subsequently the end of Narcissa's relationship with Adrian in July that year.
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