2020.09.21 05:35 candid_12567Question to the Asian community
I want to ask respectfully. Please no one come for me lol. I am interested in learning and not trying disrespect anyone. Do Asian people tend to stick or stay with in their own racial group? I am a Hispanic women married to an Asian man. We’ve been married for over 8 years. I’ve noticed that my husband’s friends congregate with only Asian people with the exception of one white friend that hangs out once in a while. and me of course, because I happen to be married to their best friend. In the beginning of the friendship, I noticed a lot of cliqueness within the group. They were always super close and I understand that it takes time to build close relationships with others. But this level of cliqueness after 10 years of know each other is strange to me. I still feel like the outsider. Another thing I noticed is that they don’t really welcome different opinions or point of views. Not that I’m over opinionated lol. If they ask me what I think and my point of view differs, it’s met with disapproval. I’ve felt a little uncomfortable being myself or stating my point of view around them. Also I’ve noticed that all his friends date and marry men/women who are Asian. For example one night his friend and I were talking about his dating life. I ended up telling him that I had a gorgeous Columbian friend that was single and thought they would hit it off. He basically got really quiet and acted uninterested. So I asked the question “have you ever dated any latinas?” He said I’ve only dated Asian girls. Last thing I noticed not just from his friends but also from co-workers of Asian decent. Is that they are more comfortable around caucasian people. Typically I get a stand offish vibe but I sense that they more comfortable befriending either other Asians or whites. Is there a reason why befriending Caucasians is more important? Also why are you more reserved to other people color? I have always surrounded myself with a diverse group of people. I never enjoyed closing myself off and only allowing Hispanic people into my life. I love people who think differently and come from different backgrounds than me. If you are chill than we can be friends..pretty much lol. With that said, I think it’s important to state that I’ve also had a few friends who are Asian that were totally welcoming and sweet. So no I don’t believe that all Asians are cliquey. Unfortunately, from my own experience I’ve noticed that the majority are stand offish and do not welcome other people of color as warm as they do to white people. Am I crazy for noticing this? Can someone educate me on why Asians tend to stay within their own racial group? Also is there something that maybe I’m doing wrong? I would like better understanding.
ANN VILHAUER November 12, 1924 - September 13, 2020 Anna Jane Westfall was born in Parma, ID on Nov. 12, 1924 and died in Vancouver, WA on Sept. 13, 2020. She grew up on a farm in Idaho, and when the family lost the farm, they lived in a tent with a dirt floor which she swept daily. As a teenager, she played on a semi-professional women’s softball team. She eventually made her way to Vancouver where she worked in the cannery, as a seamstress at Jantzen, as a welder in the shipyards, and as a waitress at the Castle Restaurant. In 1949, she married Ervin “Ike” Vilhauer. They had kids and created a loving home life until Ike died in 1979. After that, she became a world traveler and a hole-in-one golfer, but she missed her husband every day. She was an excellent seamstress and made beautiful clothes for her kids, their dolls and their bears. She was an avid reader, a passion that she passed on to her kids. She loved music by Gordon Lightfoot and Marty Robbins, the drive up the Columbia River Gorge, playing cribbage and pinochle and eating blueberries. Ann is survived by her children and their spouses, Ron, Nancy (Terry), Russell (Sue), Debra, Kim (Joe), nine grandchildren, three great-grandchildren and one great-great-grandchild. The date for a memorial service has not been set. In lieu of flowers, the family requests that you honor Ann by voting for Joe Biden. Please share a memory @ www.columbian.com/obits source: http://obits.columbian.com/obituaries/columbian/obituary.aspx?n=anna-jane-vilhauer-ann&pid=196825983
2020.09.05 03:29 StevenStevens43The British Olduwan
Olduvai gorge: One of the most important archaeological and anthropological sites in the world, in understanding the earliest known origins of Human-being, comes from a location known as Olduvai gorge in Tanzania, were Oldowan is thought to have first began evolving in to modern human, 1.9 million years ago. Olduvai gorge
The Olduvai Gorge it has proven invaluable in furthering understanding of early human evolution.
Link for photo However, it is likely that Olduwan was born from inter-racial breeding Oldowan: It appears one of the first things Oldowan man done, was go seeking for lands, perhaps a little cooler in temperature, as Olduwan, 1.8 million years ago first appeared in Georgia, Europe. In fact, by 1 million years ago, Olduwan man had even turned up in the area that would be considered modern day London. Pre-history of Europe
Link for photo_without_national_boundaries.svg) Russia: 1.5 million years ago, Oldowan man entered Russia, by the Caucasus, which leads in to Scandanavia from the Northern land bridge, which still exists today. Pre-history
In 2006, 1.5-million-year-old Oldowan flint tools were discovered in the Dagestan Akusha region of the north Caucasus,
Link for photo Return of Oldowan: It would appear one of Olduwans descendants, likely returned to Africa around, 300,000 BC, via europe. Crossing the Gibraltar straits. Paleolithic
the Acheulean. Possibly the first hunters, H. erectus mastered the art of making fire and was the first hominid to leave Africa, colonizing most of Afro-Eurasia and perhaps later giving rise to Homo floresiensis.
The earliest known Homo sapiens fossils include the Jebel Irhoud remains from Morocco (ca. 315,000 years ago),
Don't take offence: Ok, now, it is likely that the first modern humans, are still around today, in the exact same form they were then. And today, they are classed as "intelligent modern humans". They were likely, "the pygmy peoples". The reason they were likely the same people, as todays pygmy peoples, comes from the knowledge that the Jebel Irhoud, were extremely small in size. Morphology
Link for photo Magdalenian: Now, anthropoligical studies pretty much prove, that the Magdalenians that inhabited mainland europe between 17,000 BC and the onset of the younger dryas, were the same people as Jebel Irhoud. Period biology
The fauna of the Magdalenian epoch seems to have included tigers . Magdalenian humans appear to have been of short stature, dolichocephalic, with a low retreating forehead and prominent brow ridges.
Link for photo Magdalenian expansion Cheddar man: The map above does not attribute Southern parts of Britain, to have been colonialised by the Magdalenians, however Britains oldest known skeleton is Cheddar man, believed to be from around 9,100 BC, and also thought by anthropologists, to be black in skin colour. Cheddar man
Link for photo Doggerland: The reason it would have been so easy for the Magdalene to colonise Thames valley, would be due to the fact that, not only would they have the brain capacity to cross the Gibraltar straits, they would also have the advantage of being able to cross the Doggerland land bridge, which had not sunk yet, until 6,500 BC. Doggerland
Doggerland was an area of land, now submerged beneath the southern North Sea, that connected Britain to continental Europe. It was flooded by rising sea levels around 6500–6200 BC.
Link for photo Doggerland Pygmy peoples: Pygmy peoples of today, can be found mostly in the Congo region of Africa. They are a peoples which typically average a height of less than 4 ft 11. Pygmy peoples
Link for photo Pygmy peoples Effacer le Tableau: Whilst the only noticable difference between you, and a Pygmy person, is their small stature, and the fact that even today, they are hunter gatherers, despite some politically correct Scientists insisting that Pygmy peoples are not descended from Hunter gatherers, the Pygmy peoples have been the victims of repeated attempted genocides and extermination campaigns. Most recently, January 2003. Violence against pygmy peoples
From the end of 2002 through January 2003 around 60,000 pygmy civilians and 10,000 combatants were killed in an extermination campaign known as "Effacer le Tableau" during the Second Congo War. Human rights activists have made demands for the massacre to be recognized as genocide.
Link for photo Baka dancers Bantu master: Even "today" the Bantu make no bones about the fact that they are the pygmy peoples "masters". Perhaps it makes them feel big. However even "you" have joined in, on Pygmy genocidal bullying, without even knowing it, or have you never used the term "mongo", in your younger years? Mongo, is a pygmy language, aswell as a Pygmy location. The word Mongo, should not be used disparagingly. But unless you want to be part of a genocide campaign, you should also not ban the word from your vocabulary. Simply use it, respectfully. To put in to simple terms. If a pygmy person went on the internet, and told everyone he was a Mongo, he would likely be banned, by a well meaning leftist, that does not realise that, this this person, really is from a village called Mongo, near congo, and speaks Mongo, and banning this person is about the most insulting and racial discriminative thing one could possibly do. Reported slavery
In the Republic of the Congo, where Pygmies make up 2% of the population, many Pygmies live as slaves to Bantu masters. The nation is deeply stratified between these two major ethnic groups. The pygmy slaves belong to their Bantu masters from birth in a relationship that the Bantus call a time-honored tradition. Even though the Pygmies are responsible for much of the hunting, fishing and manual labor in jungle villages, Pygmies and Bantus alike say that Pygmies are often paid at the master's whim: in cigarettes, used clothing, or simply not paid at all.
Link for photo.png) Pygmy language centres Zoos: Discimination against pygmy peoples is not new. Pygmy peoples, even recently, have been sent to live in zoo cages next to Lions and Tigers, and many people view Pygmy peoples, as Paleolithics. Even in the USA, as early as 1907, they were viewed as a circus act, alongside animals. Systematic discrimination
Historically, the pygmy have always been viewed as inferior by both colonial authorities and the village-dwelling Bantu tribes. Pygmy children were sometimes captured during the period of the Congo Free State, which exported pygmy children to zoos throughout Europe, including the world's fair in the United States in 1907.
Link for photo Pygmy person in Bronx zoo cage 1906 Pepi II: Even as far back as 2297 BC, a 13 year old Egyptian pharoah named Pepi II, took great delight in capturing a pygmy person, and bragged about to everyone in Egypt. The Egytians begged him not to kill the pygmy person, but instead bring the Pygmy person back to Egypt. Likely to be used for entertainment purposes. Early years of Pepi II's reign
Sent to trade and collect ivory, ebony, and other precious items, he captured a pygmy. News of this reached the royal court, and an excited young king sent word back to Harkhuf that he would be greatly rewarded if the pygmy were brought back alive, where he would have likely served as an entertainer for the court.
Link for photo Iymeru: But what do we learn from this? We learn that modern humans from 300,000 BC had the potential to be extremely literate, intelligent, and that the idea that even Olduwan may have been an Ape, is simply misguided ancient discrimination and racism, and was genocided, quite simply because he was too stubborn to give up his traditions, and likely lacked physical build in order to stick up for himself against bigots that likely wrongfully viewed him as an illiterate fool. However Pygmy peoples are regarded by Scientists, as modern humans. And pygmy peoples, such as Iymeru, have been in even the highest positions of the ancient Egyptian empire. Iymeru, was the second most powerful man in Egypt, during the 13th dynasty. He was the Pharoahs vizier. So much for Pepi II's circus act. Iymeru)
Link for photo#/media/File:Statue_Iymeru_Turin.JPG) Iymeru Indian pygmies: However, there is a twist in the tale. It appears more likley, that the magdalenian Pygmies, "were not" in fact the same pygmy peoples as todays Congo contingent, but in actual fact, were more likely Indian pygmies. The African pygmies likely took the long way round the world, instead of going directly across the Gibraltar straits. South east Asia
Link for photo Indian Pygmy Indo-European The reason it was more likley Indian pygmies, than African pygmies, comes from the fact that there is plenty more evidence, which i will reveal later, of Indian descended people, having colonised Europe, and even America. Not only this, one of the most common languages in todays world, is Indo-European. Indo-European likley was a language that evolved over thousands of years, likely in stages, and likley due to pro-longed exposure to one anothers culture. Indo-Aryan first arose in the Levant around the time of the ancient egyptian empire, when Indians and Aryans colonized lower egypt. Indo-European evolved when Indo-Aryans invaded India during the battle of the ten kings in 1400 BC. Though, it was likley that the Aryan language, already contained certain Indo components, by the time the colonized Egypt, and those were probably picked up from the Magdalenian period, when Aryans likely had to invade european mainland to escape the polar ice-caps, and integrated with Megdalenians. Though, Indian genes in the northern hemisphere even pre-dated the Magdalenians, which i will cover later, so it is also likely, that when the Aryans invaded european mainland, and integrated with Magdalenians, their Aryan language already contained Indo components. We can also see by the photo of the Philippino girl, how Anthropologists could mistake Cheddar man for being black. This is due to the fact, that Indians, "are" descended from Africans, so, in a round about way, the Magdalenian "are" African pygmies, though not as directly as one would first think. It is likley that the Magdalenian arrived in europe via India. Though they likely made their escape, over the Gibraltar straits, the place were it all began. Saudi Arabia: Whilst it is actually likely, that modern day human was already living in Scandanavia, and even european mainland, as far back as 300,000 years ago, it is most probably that any evidence of this, was washed away during the younger dryas, when both Britain and Scandanavia, lay under polar ice-caps. But the first "recorded" movement of modern day humans, comes from 75,000 years ago when Africans first entered the Arabian peninsula. Pre-history
A 2011 study found that the first modern humans to spread east across Asia left Africa about 75,000 years ago across the Bab-el-Mandeb connecting the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
"Modern human beings—Homo sapiens—originated in Africa. Then, intermittently, sometime between 60,000 and 80,000 years ago, tiny groups of them began to enter the north-west of the Indian subcontinent.
Link for photo Israel: As Israel was in Mesopotamia, Africans travelling to the Arabian peninsula, Indonesia, or anywhere else, would have no other option than to go through the Levant, making Israel one of the earliest populated areas by modern human. 120,000 years ago. And almost definitely Black African. Pre-history
Link for photo Neanderthal man: The best evidence of what Neanderthal man looked like, comes from very well preserved remains of Neanderthals found in Shanidar cave in Iraq. The remains were thought to be from between 60,000 and 80,000 years ago, and they do point to a slightly different culture sharing the lands of Mesopotamia, with Africans. Iraq pre-history
Link for photo Neanderthal man Neanderthal: Neanderthals got a bad rap. There is no doubt Neanderthal was Asiatic. And do you remember Pepi II? That wonderful African pharoah that delightfully hunted down a "pygmy" when he was a boy? Well, this African also took great delight in carrying on the honoured age old African tradition of "smiting" Asiatics. Well racism and discrimination is actually quite prevalent within the ancient egyptian dynasties, and an ancient old traditional practise of native egyptians smiting inferior Asiatics, can be traced back to 3000 BC, during the reign of Den. The depiction even included a "bearded" foe. Events#Events)
The picture shows Den in a gesture known as "smiting the enemy". In one hand Den holds a mace, in the other hand he grabs a foe by his hair. Thanks to the braids and the conic beard the foe has been identified as of Asian origin. The hieroglyphs at the right side say "first smiting of the east".
Link for photo Smiting asiatics Literate: Now, i am hoping i no longer have to go in to too much detail about how, in actual fact, Scientists now think Neanderthal man was likely literate, and actually extremely intelligent. In fact, intelligent Africans "would not" interbreed with an idiot. And Neanderthal man did breed with other humans in this area. In fact, breeding with Neanderthal man, is likely where Africans gained a bit more bulk from, by breeding with a person that is derived from Northern sub grouos, that have grown to be a bit bulkier in bulk, in order to with stand the cold winters. He also likely was 50/50 in providing the components that would later evolve in to the AfrAsian language, that is spoken by Semites, and Arabians, as well as some Africans, but nobody knows were it evolved from. Neanderthal
Neanderthal technology is thought to have been quite sophisticated. Compared to modern humans, Neanderthals had a more robust) build and proportionally shorter limbs. These features are often explained as adaptations to conserve heat in a cold climate,
Neanderthal got cornered in Spain: Now just like the previous two groups, Neanderthal, being from european mainland, and who still exists today, got cornered in Spain, by this new anatomically modern human-being. Inter-group relations
Canadian ethnoarchaeologist Brian Hayden calculated a self-sustaining population which avoids inbreeding to consist of about 450–500 individuals, which would necessitate these bands to interact with 8–53 other bands, but more likely the more conservative estimate given low population density. Analysis of the mtDNA of the Neanderthals of Cueva del Sidrón, Spain, showed that the adult three men belonged to the same maternal lineage, while the three adult women belonged to different ones. This suggests a patrilocal residence (that a woman moved out of her group to live with her husband). However, the DNA of a Neanderthal from Denisova Cave, Russia, shows that she had an inbreeding coefficient of 1⁄8 (her parents were either half-siblings with a common mother, double first cousins, an uncle and niece or aunt and nephew, or a grandfather and granddaughter or grandmother and grandson) and the inhabitants of Cueva del Sidrón show several defects, which may have been caused by inbreeding or recessive disorders.
Early modern human (EMH) or anatomically modern human (AMH) are terms used to distinguish Homo sapiens (the only extant human species) that are anatomically consistent with the range of phenotypes seen in contemporary humans from extinct archaic human species. This distinction is useful especially for times and regions where anatomically modern and archaic humans co-existed, for example, in Paleolithic Europe.
Link for photo Early modern human Neanderthal did not get wiped out: The early modern human however, did not wipe Neanderthal out. They shared european mainland with other literate human-beings. Some of those human-beings, particularly the ones from Britain, that at this point in time, is just a part of Eurasia, probably looked more like this. Western neanderthal Denisovan: Now, Neanderthal not only spread out from Mesopotamia along European lines, and escaped via Spain, but also along Northern lines, before escaping in to Canada via the Bering land bridge, that was around at the time. However, the remains are no longer considered to be that of Neadnerthal, but in fact, that of Denisovan, the ancestor of Australian aboriginals, as well as Inuits and Paleo-Indians in America, and others. Pre-history
Link for photo.jpg) Denisovan Lapland: Now, it is likely that Paleo-Indians lived in europe, relatively peacefully, with one another. At least until the younger dryas, when blond haired blue eyed Aryans from Scandinavia had to invade European mainland. It is likely what happened during this period, is Aryans became less friendly, and forced Anatomically modern humans to flee via Spain, go and live in the Northern regions and peripheries as Eskimos in Iglus, or go and breed with the current Indigenous peoples of America and Australia and update their DNA. When the Ice-caps melted, Scandinavians likely returned to Scandinavia, and pushed the Sami people farther and farther north, until they could go no farther north, and to this day, there is a peoples in the most Northern regions of Scandanavia and Russia that regard themselves as the indigenous peoples of Scandinavia and Russia. They are called the Sami peoples. You have likley heard of them, without realising it. They are Laplanders. The place Santa Klaus is from. Sami people
Link for photo Sami peoples Indigenous Americans: The Indigenous colonisation of the Americas happened in two waves. The first was between 57,000 BC and 17,000 BC. However a Polar Ice wall prevented the first arrivals from prevailing any farther than Alaska. Migrations in to the continents
Second wave: Just as the Polar ice wall in Alaska was beginning to melt, and the ice-caps began shifting towards Britain and Scandinavia, the Aryans likely came down from the Northern lands, and many Paleo-Indians likely fleed across the melting Bering land bridge and got over just in time, to breed with Indigenous Alaskans, and populate the Americas. Canada pre-history
South America: Obviously some Paleo-Indians made it over the Ice-wall prior to the second wave arriving, as archaeologists are of the belief that South America saw it's first arrivals around 16,500 BC. Pre-columbian era
The earliest archaeological evidence from human settlement in South America comes from Monte Verde (possibly as early as 16,500 BCE).
Isolation: Until the arrival of the Spanish during the Columbian era, Paleo-Indians would have been pretty isolated, with not too much opportunity for evolving, so the 1500 AD perfectly intact mummified Inca sacrifice, would give a good clue as to what the Paleo-Indians that arrived 14,000 years ago, or even 57,000 years ago, looked like. Link for photo Inca sacrifice The Australian aboriginals have a similar ancestry. The fact that modern Australian aboriginals have the exact same ancestors as US Indigenous peoples, and were hunter gatherers when Aryans first arrived in Australia, despite making crossings on land bridges on two seperate sides of the globe, is pretty much suggestive that early modern anatomical Indonesians inhabited most of the globe, and were very much literate. And modern, and they in turn were likely descended from a mixture of Israeli Neanderthal and Afro pygmy persons. Pre-history
Human habitation of the Australian continent is known to have begun at least 65,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia. The Madjedbebe rock shelter in Arnhem Land is recognised as the oldest site showing the presence of humans in Australia. The oldest human remains found are the Lake Mungo remains, which have been dated to around 41,000 years ago. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies.[53
In prehistoric times, Greenland was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo cultures known today primarily through archaeological finds. The earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo into Greenland is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC.
And the photo just goes to show, the farther North you get, the whiter you get, as ones skin evolves to adapt to the cold. And when you get even farther north, the redder you get. Link to photo.jpg) Greenlandic Inuit couple Summary: But, the point is, that blond haired blue eyed Aryans almost definitely pre-dated the younger dryas, and they moved southward, and any trace of their previous existence was wiped out by one of humanities greatest ever Cataclysms when an entire sub-contentent, and an Island, was cut in half from manland europe. All this happened between only 6500 and 11,000 BC. The northward movements that have been attributed to the populating of Britain and Scandinavia, and the sudden appearance of white blue eyed people, was actually a "re-population", and they already lived in those lands previous to that. They had lived and evolved in those lands, ever since Oldowan turned up in the Thames valley 1 million BC, and 1.5 million BC in Russia. But until the younger dryas came and wiped any history of them out, they had no real reason to make any significant appearance on european mainland, were archaeological evidence would be preserved. And that is why the first archaeological evidence of white man only appears after and during the Younger dryas. However britain was likely not originally inhabited by pure Aryans. Pure Aryans likely began colonising Britain only after the Northward migrations. And even then. they likley shared the Island with Greekish looking people, as well as possibly even remnants of Indonesians, and the place likely got divided after Doggerland sank, and Scandinavians eventually began adding Britain to their North sea expansion. Likely beginning around 3000 BC, with the invention of their Hjortspring boat. Bronze age
Thousands of rock carvings from this period depict ships, and the large stone burial monuments known as stone ships, suggest that ships and seafaring played an important role in the culture at large. The depicted ships most likely represent sewn plank built canoes used for warfare, fishing and trade. These ship types may have their origin as far back as the neolithic period and they continue into the Pre-Roman Iron Age, as exemplified by the Hjortspring boat.
BARBARA JEAN (VINCENT) SHUFORD July 24, 1931 - July 26, 2020 On July 26, 2020 after a long battle with cancer, Barbara Jean (Vincent) Shuford entered into her Eternal Rest, joining her husband, Hugh. She left behind many friends and family who will miss her dearly. Jean was born July 24, 1931 in Nampa, ID to Ray and Opal Vincent. She spent her early years in Nampa with her older brother, Donald and in 1942 she moved with her family to Portland, OR where Ray began working in the shipyards. They only lived in Portland a short while and in November 1942, moved to a new house on the Heights in Vancouver, WA. Jean liked to tell the story of going to Montgomery Wards in Portland to buy furniture for their new house and how proud her mom was of her electric stove. Jean attended Hough Elementary School. In 1943, Jean was in the first seventh grade class at McLoughlin Junior High School (Mac Hi to the students). She started high school at Ogden Meadows in 1946 and attended there until the school burned down in July 1948. Even many years after the fact, Jean considered this a tragedy. She attended Vancouver High School her senior year and was quite popular, being selected a Song Queen and the Senior Prom Queen. Jean graduated in 1949. Following high school, Jean attended Clark College for a year and worked at the Abstract Company in Vancouver. In 1951, she met Hugh Shuford, a young airman at the Portland Air Force Base. Jean and Hugh married in 1953. After the birth of their son, David, they moved to Marshall, TX where Hugh completed his Bachelor’s Degree and their son, Mark, was born. The family returned to Vancouver in June 1956 and set up housekeeping on the Heights. Jean was living in Vancouver during the Vanport flood of 1948 and vowed she would always live on a hill. Jean began her 30-year career with the Vancouver School District when David and Mark were attending elementary school. She started as a teacher’s aide at Walnut Grove Elementary, working at Minnehaha as well. Jean worked in the office at Mac Hi while David and Mark attended there, allowing her to keep an eye on her two boys. She finished her career at the Central Office, and was recognized for her diligent work ethic and willingness to help out whenever needed. Jean retired in 1992. While being courted by Hugh, Jean began attending Vancouver’s Calvary Baptist Church. They were long-time members of Calvary. Jean sang in the choir and was involved in Sunday School. Jean and Hugh made many lifelong friends at Calvary, and treasured time spent with them. Jean and Hugh were bitten by the cruise bug and following their retirement, could be found on ships bound for Alaska, the Panama Canal, Hawaii, the Baltic Sea and many other locations. Jean was active in the local Red Hat Society and helped organize regular meetings of the “Meadows Ladies,” a group of women who had attended Ogden Meadows. Jean is survived by her two sons, David (Debby) of Richland, WA and Mark (Marcia) of Portland; two grandchildren, Kristina McCormick (Jason) and Robert Shuford (Andrea). Jean also had three great-grandsons, Nathan, Teddy and Charlie, who were very dear to her. Jean is also survived by her brother, Donald of Vancouver, as well as several nieces and nephews. Hugh, her husband of 66 years, passed away in 2019. Jean was a strong, caring wife, mother, grandmother and friend. We will miss her stories of seeing FDR when she was a child in Idaho, of being selected prom queen, and her early days working as a teacher’s aide (especially her time as a playground monitor). Jean was a shopper par excellence and her skill with coupons and the sale rack oft times resulted in Meier and Frank almost having to pay her for the clothes she found! A celebration of Jean’s life will be scheduled at a later date. In lieu of flowers, the family requests donations to the breast cancer charity of your choice. Please share a memory @ www.columbian.com/obits source: http://obits.columbian.com/obituaries/columbian/obituary.aspx?n=barbara-jean-shuford&pid=196647374
SHIRLENE BUCKMILLER May 19, 1951 - August 1, 2020 Shirlene was born in Portland, OR to Douglas and Shirley Harding. She had three siblings; Glenn (Pat), Ken (Nancy), and Jillene (Dan). A resident of rural Vancouver, she graduated from Evergreen High School in 1969. In 1973, Shirlene graduated from Central Washington University with a BA in Education. She also completed her graduate work at CWU. Her first teaching assignment was for West Valley (Yakima) for 22 years. After student teaching in Apple Valley in the spring, she was hired as a 3, 4, 5 teacher in the fall and 14 years later moved to Wide Hollow and then Cottonwood to teach first and second grade. Shirlene then taught first grade in the Bend/LaPine School District for 16½ years. She took great pleasure seeing the motivation and enthusiasm the kids had for learning to read. Teaching introduced Shirlene to so many great people who became ex-students and parents who are now lifelong friends. She loved to hear kids say please and thank you. With her humble and kind demeanor, she was a super role model for children. A milestone in her life was meeting Ron (her best friend and love of her life) at the Dairy Queen in Vancouver in 1968. This was the start of a 52-year adventure of life. They were married on September 25, 1971. Kilee, who was born 11 years later. She brought so much joy, fun, love, and laughter to their lives. Their teaching careers allowed them to spend time together creating cherished memories. Before late onset Muscular Dystrophy slowed her down, she enjoyed backpacking, running (finishing the Yakima Half Marathon), and her favorite family sport skiing. Ron and Shirlene were traveling soul mates. The beauty of Augusta, the blue waters of the Caribbean, and trips to Hawaii, the Rose Bowl, and Nashville were her favorites. The mention of Lahaina always brought a smile. Family trips to Disneyland, state parks in Utah, Sunriver, and Las Vegas were very special times. She was a dedicated football coach’s wife who spent 38 years of Friday night lights. After retirement and moving to Albany to be near grandkids, Maddie and Blake, she became a Beaver Believer. Tailgating at Reser was a special family event. She also enjoyed going to women’s basketball games at OSU. Shirlene’s most defining moments were as mom and then “Grambie.” Her love and devotion to Ron, Kilee, Adam, Blake, and Maddie were limitless. From the smallest thing like fixing a sack lunch to the grandest of all (Christmas), Shirlene always displayed her creativity to those she loved. She was a superior decorator in all endeavors the yard, the home, holidays, special events, and birthdays; all displayed her love and the importance of family. Her summers were spent on her flower gardens and baskets. Shirlene loved the sun whether at a pool or riding in a golf cart. She loved day trips to the beach. Her scrapbooking skills were used to make memorabilia for others. Shirlene is survived by her husband, Ron; daughter, Kilee (Adam), and grandchildren, Blake and Madelyn. At her request, a private celebration of her life and spreading of her and Ron’s ashes will be held by Kilee and her family at later date. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to St. Judes Children’s Hospital in Shirlene’s name. Please share a memory @ www.columbian.com/obits source: http://obits.columbian.com/obituaries/columbian/obituary.aspx?n=shirlene-buckmiller&pid=196614081
2020.07.22 22:10 StevenasaurusWe Are Operators Episode 1: The First Day
8:33 AM Interview Room Jay anxiously tapped his knees under the table as the interviewers shuffled several papers between each other. They were two men and a woman. The men were a Kuranta and Forte while the woman was a Liberi like Jay. Jay resisted the urge to scratch his chin, a ritual of his whenever he wanted to think. He believed it would only hurt him in the interview as he needed to project confidence and certainty in every answer. He went from tapping his knees to squeezing his legs which were squishy, making him smile. The squeezing eventually became a massage which made him close his eyes and relax. “Are you ready to begin?” the Liberi woman's voice called. Jay opened his eyes and nodded confidently. “Yes, I'm ready.” His pupils moved subtly so he could look at the clock. It read 8:37 AM. Was I out for a minute or two?! Did she call on me more than once?! he thought to himself. “Please state your information for the tape,” the Forte man said after pressing a button on the camera sitting on their table. Jay straightened up. “Jay Dresmal. Date of birth: February 23rd . Place of birth: Columbia. Race: Liberi. Combat Experience...” Jay choked up on the combat experience. Technically, he didn't have any at all but knew a less than flattering interview would send him back to the supermarket he worked at in Columbia. He quickly brushed back his blue and black hair with his hand and returned to sitting up straight. “Two months...” Jay said. Not wanting to lie too much but still wanting to at least have something on the board. “Could you tell me more about your two months of experience?” the Kuranta interviewer asked. Jay bit his lip and looked straight at the Kuranta man. He had rehearsed for this yet he was fumbling the play. As soon as the Kuranta man's brow was raised, Jay knew he had to make his move to maintain the semblance of confidence. “It's more spread out in four years but if you condense all the incidents together you'd get around two months,” Jay explained. “I worked at a grocery store in a rough part of my city belonging to a small chain that didn't really give a damn about customer satisfaction or even safety. While that's pretty bad business, it also meant we were able to do a lot to thieves. I worked loss-prevention for a bit and being in a rough part of town, I saw my fair share of knives.” The interviewers whispered among themselves. Jay worried the answer wasn't good enough or that they saw through his bluff. “Tell us more about the supermarket you worked at,” the Liberi interviewer said. You're kidding me! I'm training for battle! Not to be a cashier or stock boy! Out of all the questions he prepared for before coming today, the last thing he expected was to talk about his previous job. “Well... uh... it was a grocery store job...” Jay struggled to say. The Forte interviewer wrote something down. “Maybe begin with your daily routine. What do you do when you first get there?” “Well I arrive an hour before opening so that I can check the place out for any signs of burglary or in case there's some bad guys waiting nearby to rush us when we unlock the doors. Then for most of the day my manager would have me walk around and look out for any thieves since we somehow lost more to theft than expiry or damages,” Jay explained. I'm going to work in the ship's store aren't I? “Do you have any techniques on catching or preventing thefts?” the Kuranta interviewer asked. Jay nodded. “Nobody really pays attention to the giant bulb mirrors on the ceiling so I like to be nearby and watch how someone acts. Even when a thief's alone in the aisle, they still look around before doing it. A lot of the times I just greet people since it scares a lot of the amateurs or first-timers since they think I'll remember their face.” Why am I telling them all this? If anything, I'm just making the case for myself to work in the ship store. If there's a god, don't make me cashier. Make me a stock boy at least! “Do you remember any incidents of combat you can recall in detail?” the Liberi interviewer asked. Jay clenched his fists, knowing a question like this was his time to shine. “March 18th . I caught someone trying to steal candy. I thought he was a kid but it turned out to be a middle-aged man who pulled out a knife! Without even thinking, I grabbed the nearest thing I could use for a weapon: a baguette from a nearby display basket. Since my weapon was longer, I kept my distance and smacked the guy down good until he dropped both his knife and candy before making a dash out of the store with me behind him, still waving around my baguette which was broken from hitting him so many times!” The interviewers chuckled. Jay restrained himself from smiling and waited patiently for the interviewers to finish writing. After they were done, they returned to whispering among themselves. They took their time in their deliberations which began to worry Jay. Then, the Liberi interviewer shook her head. What does that mean?! Stay calm, Jay... The fact I'm even sitting down for an interview means I'm being considered. “I think we've heard enough,” the Forte interviewer said. That's all?! I have so many more answers ready! God above, I've only just started to believe in you but throw me a bone here! “I'm ready to receive your judgment...” Jay said in a downtrodden tone. “We'd like to offer you a slot in the Vanguard training program,” the Liberi interviewer said. Jay let out a scream that he immediately cut off within a second. He regained his composure and smiled. “I accept. But may I ask why?” Jay asked. The Kuranta interviewer nodded. “Your routine of arriving early at your place of work to scout the place out fits well with the job description of a Vanguard. Your observational skills and the information you can gather will be useful for other operators arriving at the scene to assist you.” “Welcome to Rhodes Island, Operator Jay,” the Forte interviewer said. “You may leave now; we'll send the contract to your assigned dorm,” the Liberi interviewer instructed. Jay stood up and bowed his head before leaving the interview room. He headed down the hallway with a skip in his step before entering one of the main corridors on the base and falling to his knees and looking up at the ceiling. “There. Is. A. God!” Jay screamed. “Ugh, who's the creep? Is he new?” A Lupo girl in a logistics company uniform asked her companion, a pinkish-red haired Sankta girl. The Sankta girl got behind the Lupo girl and pushed her forward with both hands. “Just keep walking, Tex. Don't make eye contact.” Jay choked on his own spit when he realized everyone was looking at him. 11:36 AM Training Facility Jay wiped the sweat off his brow as he finished with his physical examinations. As much as he wanted to know his scores, he'd have to wait for the results to be processed and submitted to his personnel file. Running, weights, agility tests, and so many more physical activities had taken their toll on Jay. He had yet to be assigned to a dorm so the only thing he could do was walk around the base instead of relax. His curiosity lead him to the shooting galleries next door where several operators were practising with guns, crossbows, and bows. After taking ear protection from a bowl and inserting them in his ears, he entered the range. The operators closest to the entrance were two Sankta, one with a pistol and the other with a crossbow. Jay decided to approach them, considering they looked to be the most fresh out of the operators on the range. “When you get your gun, it's gonna be sweet. Nothing feels better than pulling the trigger and getting that kickback from the recoil,” the Sankta with the pistol said. “Well I still have a long way to go before I get mine. Although, I heard they're pretty expensive,” the Sankta with the crossbow said. Jay waved his hand as he approached, catching the attention of both Sankta. “Hey guys, the name's Jay, I'm new around here. Just finished with my physical tests.” “Hello! I'm Adnachiel. I'm a few months in but I still consider myself new,” the Sankta with the crossbow greeted with a smile. “Eddron, sniper class,” the Sankta with the pistol said while waving it around which made Jay uncomfortable. “I did my physicals a few hours ago so I guess I'm new too.” “Eddron! What did I tell you about waving your firearm around?!” an angry voice that Jay recognized as Drill Instructor Dobermann's called. Eddron stood up straight and quickly placed his gun on the counter overlooking the shooting range. “Sorry, Drill Instructor Dobermann! It won't happen again!” “If I catch you practising improper firearm handling on the range again, I'll make sure your weapon's in a place it won't be handled improperly again. I'll leave you to figure out where that is,” Dobermann threatened. Eddron instinctively reached for his butt and nodded with an expression of fear. “Jay, I didn't expect you to associate with such a recruit,” Dobermann said. “I-I-” Jay struggled to speak. “I was just saying hello to Eddron and Adnachiel.” “I'd be careful of Eddron. The last thing I want for you is to get your head blown off because he's too eager to use the gun he's only recently gotten certification to use,” Dobermann warned. “I will keep that in mind, Drill Instructor Dobermann. Thank you,” Jay said. Dobermann smiled and nodded at Jay before returning back to her position watching the range. Adnachiel laughed. “I remember when I got my first lashing from Dobermann. It just means you're one step closer to being an actual operator. Anyways, I gotta head out, my squad mate Cardigan needs me to help her find our captain. I'll see you guys later.” Jay and Eddron waved goodbye to Adnachiel and were left alone together with Eddron's pistol still on the counter. “I've never fired a gun before,” Jay said, breaking the silence. Eddron picked up his gun and kept it pointed down the range. “The Five-SeveN, badass little thing with ambidextrous safety controls and a twenty-round magazine. Pretty sweet huh?” “You sure know a lot about it,” Jay said. “Spent days reading about all the guns before I got mine. Might've ended up on a list or something but I guess it was worth it in the end. I wanted a shotgun since I saw this really cool dude with one a few months back but I could only get my pistol certification,” Eddron said while admiring his pistol. A few rows down from the two was a feline girl who was also shooting a pistol. She was taking her time between each shot and took even longer to aim down the sights. Eddron nudged Jay on the elbow. “Check this out.” Eddron walked over to the feline girl and stood behind her. Jay had a bad feeling and stayed close enough to the two to be able to hear them both talk. “Jessica, huh? Cute name. Lemme show you how it's done,” Eddron said while pointing his gun down the range. Eddron fired a few shots at the target. If his intention was to hit a bullseye, or even have all the bullets hit the target paper, he failed miserably as only one shot even made it to the sheet while being nowhere close to the dead centre. “Sorry, you distracted me with your feline charms,” Eddron said in what Jay assumed was supposed to be a passionate and stoic tone. Jay's mouth went agape as Eddron continued moving forward with his advances despite the signals not to. This guy's a total sleazeball! Take a hint dude! “Jessica!” a female voice called. Two women, a Vulpo and Vouivre joined Jessica and Eddron. The two women were decked out in military-grade gear and the Vouivre specifically had a menacing aura to her. “Liskarm and I were gonna go grab lunch, care to join us?” the Vulpo asked. Jessica quickly nodded and left the range before her two companions could even move. The Vulpo turned around to leave but paused and then looked back at Eddron before gesturing with her head. “Liskarm.” The Vouivre didn't say a word and stepped into the same booth as Eddron and fired a shot down the range. Her aim was true as the bullseye ripped open from a bullet hole. She fired four more shots, waiting each time for the bullet to hit the bullseye before firing again. When she was done, she clicked back on the safety of her weapon while the Vulpo wagged her finger at Eddron before they both made their departure. Jay whistled and acted like he wasn't a part of the conversation. Once the two were gone, Jay joined Eddron in his booth. Instead of a look of fear that Jay expected, Eddron was smiling. “They all dig me,” Eddron said with a satisfied tone. “You kidding? They wanted to kill you. What was up with that flirting anyways?” Jay asked. Eddron put a hand over his heart. “What'd it look like I was doing? I was chasing some tail, man.” This guy's an even bigger scumbag than I thought! “You're just here for the girls? Are relationships even allowed here?” Jay asked. “Oh they're allowed,” Eddron said affirmatively. “They tack on a few restrictions to you and your partner when you declare it to HR but it's definitely allowed. Trust me bro, I've done my research.” “You don't have a girl back home or something?” Jay asked. Eddron pantomimed spitting on the floor in disgust. “I've been totally turned off Sankta girls thanks to my sister Aecoria. Can't even talk to a Sankta girl without thinking she's my sister. It's kinda like that science dude who said every son wants to sleep with his mom or something, but like kinda different.” “You're kinda losing me, bud,” Jay said. “Besides, Sankta girls are so vanilla. No tail, no fluffy ears or badass horns. What's there to enjoy?” Eddron said.. Oh my god this guy keeps getting worse and worse! “What about you? You got a girl?” Eddron asked. “Oh! Uh! Yeah! Back home in Columbia! She went to a different school... Enough about me! What's your plan to win the hearts of the ladies here?” Jay answered, flustered. “Once I become the top sniper, the tail'll be chasing me,” Eddron said while taking his pistol and spinning it on his finger along the trigger guard before holstering it. “Eddron! What did I tell you?!” Dobermann screamed as she cracked her whip. “Oh shit!” Eddron yelled as he grabbed Jay and held him in the path of the whip. Jay closed his eyes and braced himself as the whip approached. The last thing he saw was a look of terror on Dobermann's face as the whip shot at him like a missile. A tightening grip that burned took him by the throat and pulled him to the ground face first, his nose smashing straight on the floor which caused blood to rush out. 11:57 AM Infirmary Jay sat patiently on the bed as he could hear the bustle of doctors, medics, and researchers scurrying about the infirmary behind the curtain that secluded him. It reminded him of the hospital back home. After some time, a Zalak girl with short hair tied into a bun wearing a medical mask and lab coat threw open the curtain and closed it behind her. She pulled down her mask and eyed Jay for a moment. Jay had to admit, she was cute. “Hiya! How may I help you today?” the girl asked. “Aren't you a doctor? Why don't you look at the sheet?” Jay asked. The girl looked around the room for a bit before taking the clipboard next to Jay. “Ah, I see you need your nose to get checked out and also do a followup on your preliminary medical examination I get it now.” I'm not getting good vibes from this girl. “Alright, let's get started...” the girl said while looking through a cupboard. “Uhh... I'm Jay...” “Hiya, Jay. I'm Labcoat, named because I wear a labcoat. Very simple name to remember, yes?” Labcoat greeted while looking through another cupboard. “So are you actually a doctor?” Jay asked. Labcoat chuckled. “Of course not. But I swear I'm on the medical team so you're in good hands.” If you're on it, you're on it. Why the need to swear it? “Here we go,” Labcoat exclaimed to herself while pulling out a stethoscope. She put the earpieces in her rodent ears and hovered the other end of the stethoscope over Jay's nose, not even touching it. “Hmm... Your nose appears to have suffered some damage,” Labcoat said. “The dried blood under my nose wasn't obvious?” Jay asked. Labcoat shrugged and went back to scrounging through the cupboards. “Could've been someone else's.” “Are... are you really part of the medical team?” Jay asked, not hiding the doubt behind his voice. Labcoat giggled as she pulled out a syringe in a sterile wrapper. “Oh stop with the jokes already. If I wasn't medical staff, how'd I get my hands on a lab coat, eh? They don't just give these out to anyone ya know.” “What's that for?” Jay asked, looking at the syringe. “Uh... it's for your injury of course. Why don't you leave things to the professional? Just sit back and relax,” Labcoat said with a smile as she tore off the syringe's wrapper. God above, save me. Jay swallowed a lump in his throat. Labcoat walked over to him with a joyful stride which terrified him even more. “Can I get a second opinion on my injury?” Jay suggested. “Are you doubting me, Jay? I know we just met and all but that really hurts ya know?” Labcoat said while pouting. Now I feel bad. Jay quickly thought of a new strategy. Just like with the thieves back home, a good look in the eyes would be more than enough to break the facade. Before Labcoat could do something, Jay took her wrist and looked at her eyes. “Labcoat. Tell it to me straight. Are you really in the medical team?” Jay asked sternly. Labcoat froze. She pulled herself away from Jay as her lips quivered and her eyes scrunched up. The girl fell to her knees and brought her head to the floor as if she were praying. “Please don't rat me out, I beg you,” Labcoat pleaded, sniffling throughout her begging. I've seen videos that started like this. Jay felt bad for making her cry and patted the empty space next to him. “There there. You wanna talk about it?” Labcoat nodded and scurried up onto the spot next to Jay. “I'm not on the medical team...” Labcoat said. “So what class are you? Supporter? Specialist?” Jay asked. “Guard,” Labcoat answered. She's a guard?! Jay coughed to hold back the fact he was totally shocked at Labcoat's class. “Aren't the guards the cool kids on the block? Why impersonate a medic?” “I guess guards are cool and all. But I always wanted to be a doctor when I grew up. But there was no way I could afford med school, they also probably wouldn't be comfortable with an infected student either so I thought getting an internship at Rhodes Island would be my ticket to the Hypocritical Oath,” Labcoat explained. “So you're infected huh? Also, I don't think it's called that...” Jay said. “It's not?” Labcoat asked. This girl's hopeless... “How'd you end up as a guard?” Jay asked, steering the conversation back into place. Labcoat shrugged. “No idea really. My interview was a few hours ago, but I honestly can't remember what I said. I must've really messed up since a guard's kinda the opposite of a medic, don't ya think?” “Ha ha,” Jay laughed. “So it's your first day too? My interview was like three hours ago. Thought I was a goner but I like to think there's someone up above watching over me.” Labcoat paused and squinted at Jay. “Oh my gosh! You're the guy that was screaming about god in the corridor!” Jay choked on his spit and looked away from Labcoat. He saw his face on the reflection of some medical equipment which showed he was turning red while Labcoat laughed. “Sorry, it was pretty funny how everyone looked at you. So... are you gonna rat me out?” Labcoat asked, her long thin tail wagging around. “Nah, but maybe you should stop,” Jay warned. “Yeah... I guess you're right,” Labcoat said. A set of shoes appeared in the slot between the curtain and floor. Labcoat gasped and pulled up her mask and stood up from the bed. A young Sarkaz girl with purple hair carrying a staff threw open the curtain. “Wait a minute. Who're you?” “I'm an intern,” Labcoat answered, making her voice a bit deeper. “What's your name?” the Sarkaz girl asked, getting closer to Labcoat. Labcoat held up her finger a moment as if she was going to entertain the question before immediately dashing out. “Wait! Ugh... I gotta ask Dr. Kal'tsit if she recognized that one,” the Sarkaz girl muttered to herself. Jay cleared his throat which prompted the Sarkaz girl to turn around and smile at him. “Sorry about that! My name's Hibiscus! I'll be assisting you with your medical needs today!” the girl greeted. “Hi... I'm Jay,” Jay greeted back. “Hmm... you look like you need some Electrolytes. I'll whip you up some of my signature energy drink real quick before we conduct the checkup!” Hibiscus said cheerfully. Jay smiled. “Actually... that sounds really nice. Thank you.” “You're gonna love it!” Hibiscus cheered. 12:46 PM Cafeteria Jay struggled to walk up to the stack of trays at the front end of the cafeteria counter. His stomach had unpleasantly emptied itself from both digestive orifices after drinking Hibiscus' energy drink. With his stomach holding nothing inside, he needed something to eat and something to wash away the last remaining bits of vomit taste in his mouth. The food was exotic with a banner above the counter saying it was Kjerag Food Day. In the kitchen, several cooks were moving about, carrying giant metal trays or working stoves and ovens. One cook in particular, a well-built Forte man in black seemed to be garnering the attention of several female operators as he gracefully prepared meal after meal. The man was quite handsome but Jay focused his attention on grabbing a plate and using the giant spoons in the food trays to get himself a bit of everything from curry rice to grilled steak covered in spices from the Kjerag borderlands. At the end of the line before the register was a refrigerated tray with drinks and Jay took a small carton of chocolate milk to finish off his lunchtime ensemble. The girl at the register showed Jay his total and presented him with a device that needed him to insert his Rhodes Island cash card into. Jay fumbled around his pockets for a moment until he found his wallet and brought out the card. When the transaction was complete, Jay took his tray and turned around to view the cafeteria. The cafeteria was crowded with operators all around sitting at tables. There were some familiar faces to Jay like the logistics company employees who thought he was creepy and the girls in military-grade gear that threatened Eddron. But their tables were all full and they probably needed more time to forget who he was before he could go in for a second impression. All the other tables were crowded with various cliques ranging from established squads to people who were just from the same area or organization. At the far end of the cafeteria was a feline girl sitting all by herself. Jay took his tray and walked all the way over to introduce himself and ask to sit. The girl had long hair that looked barely groomed and seemed to have never been cut as it ran down to her legs while the unkempt nature of it almost covered her feline ears. She was working on something as she had her phone on the table and was writing something on several sheets of paper while taking the occasional bite from her lunch. “Can I sit here?” Jay asked. The girl didn't look up from her work. “Sure.” Jay smiled and sat down opposite of the girl and eagerly dug into the curry rice with his spoon. The rice practically melted in his mouth thanks to the curry and felt like he was eating heaven itself. I could get used to this. Jay sneaked a peek at the girl's work. Because the papers were upside down, it was hard to make out what she was doing but it looked intricate with diagrams and equations all over the sheets. “So whatcha working on?” Jay asked with his mouth full of curry rice. “A strategy,” the girl answered. “Oh cool. Like what? A military strategy?” Jay asked, this time making sure his mouth wasn't full. “Defeating my enemies,” the girl replied menacingly. Great... another weirdo. “Uhh... well, my name's Jay. Vanguard class,” Jay greeted while scratching the back of his head. “Meeka. Supporter,” the girl replied quickly before returning her focus back to her phone and papers. Jay opened his carton of chocolate milk and sipped on it. “So uh... who's the enemy?” “The Demon King of Craglore,” Meeka answered. You're kidding me. Jay stood up from his seat and leaned over to get an actual look at what Meeka was doing. On her phone was a game where a team of heroes were fighting monsters in some reddish hellscape. Meanwhile on her papers, the equations themselves were drop rates on materials and numbers calculating which of her heroes would get the most out of a level up from her limited resources. “Is that even a game if you're doing all this?” Jay asked. “I spent eight hours rerolling which left me behind the pack. As long as I don't auto play the stages, I can advance faster and catch up,” Meeka answered eagerly. “Looks like you're kinda stuck on that stage,” Jay said, watching the heroes on Meeka's game slowly get wiped out. Meeka sighed. “Feraldis' s2 gives him 80% crit rate and it didn't even proc which screwed me. If I can just get him to crit, the other heroes in the turn order will do exactly enough damage to three star the stage.” “Why don't you just power up your heroes and then come back?” Jay asked with a naive innocence. “Did you seriously just ask me that?” Meeka asked, looking as if she was greatly offended. “Spending 15 energy to do an EXP stage means 15 energy I can't use on story stages. Most of the top players are already on chapter 9 and I'm only on 8-19! The gear on chapter 9 is infinitely better which will only make the top players more powerful in PVP!” Jay shrugged. “Those top players probably spend a lot of money on that game. Do you even spend money?” “I do,” Meeka answered. Do I dare ask how much? Jay scratched his chin. With his respect for Meeka draining by the second, it was probably a better idea to let sleeping dogs lie and not ask her how much she spent. “So why join Rhodes Island if all you wanna do is play that game?” Jay asked while sipping on his chocolate milk. “Money,” Meeka answered. Jay almost choked on his chocolate milk. It was kind of funny how simple her answer was when most of the people in the cafeteria had intricate backstories and reasons to want to join. Jay wiped his mouth and nose. “Well that's a reason I guess. Now you've got me curious, how'd you even get past the interview?” “I mentioned I liked strategy and before I could finish and say games, they plopped me into a simulator to see my tactical skills. I mean, the simulator was like a game so it was a piece of cake. Decided to keep my mouth shut while I was ahead,” Meeka explained with a smile as she managed to beat the stage she was struggling with. Alright, this girl's not a total lost cause. “What does a supporter do anyways?” Jay asked while cutting his grilled steak with a knife and fork. Meeka shrugged. “Beats me; I've only just got in the program. I guess I support my team.” “I already had that part figured out,” Jay said, rolling his eyes. “I've got a drone with a camera attachment back at my dorm so I dunno, I could help my teammates see stuff,” Meeka suggested. “Wait, you've got your dorm assignment already?” Jay asked, putting his food down. Meeka did something on her phone which prompted her to write several equations on her paper. “They posted them an hour ago, where were you?” Jay looked down at the table and remembered his unpleasant trip to the bathroom. “Hanging around... Thanks for the heads up.” Jay shifted his focus on finishing eating so he could head to the aircraft hangar to retrieve his belongings and be on his way to his dorm. Meeka didn't seem to mind the silence considering she was fully engrossed in her game. 1:22 PM Dormitories, Level D, Room 35 Jay pulled his wheeled-luggage outside the door of his assigned dorm. The door wasn't locked which meant one of his roommates was probably inside. In his hurry to get to his dorm, he didn't take the time to see who else would be sharing the room with him and wondered if everyone was already in there waiting for him. Jay swiftly opened the door to reveal the dorm. A giant Ursus man let out a yelp and fell behind the couch he was sitting on. Is anybody on this damn ship normal? “Uh! I found a penny!” the Ursus man urgently said with a deep voice as he emerged from behind the couch. The man looked to be middle-aged, possibly even Jay's dad's age. His hair wrapped around his head and went along his cheeks to connect with a short beard off his chin which gave him somewhat of an authoritative image. The man was also incredibly tall, looking to be about a full head taller than Jay which would've made him incredibly menacing if not for his earlier yelp. “Lungmen doesn't make pennies anymore,” Jay said, bracing himself for whatever weird shtick the Ursus man had in store. “It's a Columbian penny!” the Ursus man retorted, his voice turning normal but still quite deep. Jay sighed. “Buddy I was born and raised in Columbia.” “An Ursus penny?” the man said with desperation in his voice. Jay pulled out his issued phone. “I don't know anything about Ursus money but I can do a quick search right now.” “Okay! You scared me... But you should've knocked before storming in like that!” the Ursus man said with a pout and crossed arms. The dude's built like a tank but is scared of someone opening the door? No, I'm reading this fine specimen of a man wrong. “You got assassins after you?” Jay asked. The Ursus man shook his head. “No.” “You on the run?” Jay asked, his hope dwindling by the second. The Ursus man shook his head again. “No.” “Then why were you scared?” Jay asked with a resigned expression. “I just don't like sudden movements,” the Ursus man answered. Damn it... Jay sighed and inspected the room. It was a decently sized common area with a kitchen at the far left and the bedrooms and bathroom at the far right. In between were a couch and several seats along with a dining table with chairs near the kitchen. “I guess I'll go pick a room,” Jay said to the Ursus man who got back on the couch to watch the television. Jay pulled his luggage into the bedroom that was in the middle of the three. The room was pretty barren except for the bed and a drawer. It was bigger than his bedroom back in Columbia so it was more than perfect for him, especially since there was room for a work desk. Jay left his luggage in his room so he could go back to the common area and check out the kitchen. On his way out, he noticed the Ursus man's bedroom door was open and took a peek inside to satisfy his curiosity. He noticed medals, trophies, and even a fur hat that carried a golden insignia that was probably significant. Ah... I get it... this guy's been in wars and is suffering from trauma. Poor guy. “Damn, that's a lot of medals. You a soldier or something?” Jay asked with a curious smile. “Oh those? No, those are my father's,” the Ursus man answered. “All of them?” Jay asked, still holding onto some hope. “All of them. Although maybe one belonging to my brother could've slipped in there,” the Ursus man said with a shrug. I had high hopes for you man... Jay wasn't in the mood to check out the kitchen anymore and sat down on the couch with the Ursus man to watch TV. It was on the Rhodes Island Public Access channel and the current feature was an art show where a girl with glasses was painting something on a canvas. “She paints so well,” the Ursus man said, smiling. Jay scratched his chin and awkwardly looked around the room. “So what's the deal? Why are you such a scaredy cat?” “You don't get scared?” the Ursus man argued. “I do, but when someone comes in the door my first reaction isn't jumping behind the couch. Were you always this way?” Jay asked. “Yes...” the Ursus man said softly while looking down at his lap. “I don't look like it, but I'm actually the heir to the Olovsky family.” “How much of a big deal is that?” Jay asked, genuinely interested. “The Olovskys have provided fine warriors and generals to the Ursus race for generations. I'm not the first disappointment in the family, but at least the other failures actually fought battles,” the Ursus man explained. Jay slouched back on the couch. “So why are you here instead of back home in Ursus proving yourself?” “I'm here to prove myself. Maybe I'd man up and fight for my country when it came to it. But imagine how much I could prove fighting for lands I don't call home and people I don't call friend? If I overcome my fears and build a reputation for myself, I will prove myself worthy to my father and prevent my brother from taking all of my inheritance. Those medals in my room are reminders of what I must be,” the Ursus man said passionately with a hand over his heart. Jay was moved by the man's speech. Throughout the day he had met people with dreams and ambitions with the exception of Meeka and Eddron. Labcoat wanted to become a doctor and the Ursus man sitting next to him wanted to prove himself worthy of his lineage. It made Jay realize that now he was an operator, he didn't really have a goal for himself to strive for. The thought made him curl up on the couch and go quiet while scratching his chin. Jay gently tapped his cheeks in quick succession to regain himself. “Well, my name's Jay. Pleasure to meet you.” “Thank you, Jay. As for me, I have taken a name worthy of what I must become. I must be strong like rock and for that I named myself Alabaster, a Defender,” the Ursus man greeted. “Isn't Alabaster kind of a soft rock?” Jay asked as he took out his phone. “No it isn't,” Alabaster said in a desperate panic. “Look here it is: Alabaster is a mineral or rock that is soft, often used for carving, and is processed for plaster powder,” Jay read. Alabaster sunk his face into his hands. “I already filled out all the paperwork...” I mean that name still kinda fits. The door suddenly opened again which made Alabaster scream and jump behind the couch again. A medical gurney rolled into the room with Eddron laying on it while it was being pushed by a young pink-haired Cautus boy. “Hey boys,” Eddron greeted weakly. He better not be my roommate. “Sorry for disturbing you, Eddron was too busy in the infirmary to come earlier,” the Cautus boy said. “What happened?” Alabaster asked as he rose from behind the couch again. “Dobermann made him exercise until his arms and legs gave out; he must've done something really bad to piss her off like that,” the Cautus boy answered. That's what you get for using me as a shield. “Boys, I can't move my arms and legs, can one of you guys help me into a bed?” Eddron asked, his voice sounding like he was sleepy. “Allow me,” Alabaster said as he walked around the couch to get to the gurney. With only one arm, Alabaster lifted Eddron and slung him over his shoulder. Jay watched in awe at the man's strength, feeling ashamed by proxy at how such power was being held by such a scaredy cat. “Hey, Nurse Ansel, you're kinda cute. Let's exchange numbers,” Eddron suggested with a smile as Alabaster carried him into the final available bedroom. Jay was about to speak up but stopped himself. As an act of revenge, he was going to let Eddron figure out things on his own. Ansel seemed to notice Jay's attempt to correct Eddron and smiled. “He's on a few medications. Enjoy the rest of your day.” Ansel bowed and took the gurney with him as he left the room. Once he was gone, Jay stood up and finally headed over to the kitchen to see things for himself. It was basic, only featuring a stove, fridge, some counters, and some overhead cabinets. Jay opened the fridge to see inside and found it was empty. “The fridge is empty! I think I'm gonna check out the ship store and get us some stuff!” Jay called. “Stay safe!” Alabaster called back. 2:58 PM Ship Store Jay could only walk around the aisles. There was everything he could ask for from food to household goods yet his shopping basket was empty as his mind had drifted as aimlessly as he was right now. The store reminded him of home and the supermarket he used to work at. He remembered the times he would wander the aisles of his old store, dreaming of a life outside of a crummy apartment and part-time job. Now, he was wandering the aisles of this store, dreaming of a life beyond his achieved goal of operator. Just like he was thinking back at the dorm, he remembered all the ambitions of those he met and how challenging they were. He could only imagine the feeling of accomplishment upon achieving those goals and knew right now, he had nothing like in store for him. In his daze, he almost bumped into another operator. Jay snapped out of his trance and bowed his head. “I'm sorry.” “No, I'm sorry,” a Perro girl replied while bowing her head. The girl looked to be a couple years older than Jay. She had black hair that was tied neatly into a ponytail which contrasted heavily from the baggy sweater and pants she was wearing. “Uh hey... I know this is a bit random... but say you recently achieve a goal of yours and now have nothing after. What do you do?” Jay asked. The girl stroked her chin. “That's a really loaded question to give to a stranger. But I'd say just keep moving forward, as long as you're moving forward, you'll find something to strive for.” “Wow... that was actually really helpful. Thanks... I'm Jay,” Jay greeted while extending an arm. Finally, someone normal on this damn ship. The girl extended her hand out. “I'm Spark.” Jay received an electric shock the moment his fingers touched Spark's. He recoiled back while Spark laughed. “Sorry, I'm a caster and my arts give a bit of a jolt,” Spark said, still giggling. “Thank goodness I didn't bump into you,” Jay joked. “So, are you new too?” Spark asked. Jay looked at Spark. “How'd you know?” “I'm kinda between goals as well. I kinda assumed you were like me and joined up in today's recruit wave,” Spark said. “Pretty smart. So... keep moving forward, huh? Guess I'll try your advice out,” Jay said. Jay took a few steps with Spark right behind him and arrived at the cereal aisle where he saw a box that caught his attention. On the box was a white-haired Kuranta police officer that he had seen on board on his way to the store. He took the box and read the name of the cereal, Gran-Flakes. Jay looked around the aisle and spotted a relatively short girl with a black sweater that looked too big for her and a tool belt on her waist browsing. “Excuse me, miss, do you work here?” “Miss,” the girl giggled, “I'm a lot older than I look. As for your question, not at the moment, but I run things around here when I do. Ada Church, Chief Engineer of Rhodes Island, you can call me Closure.” “How did she end up on a cereal box?” Jay asked, pointing at the picture of Grani. Closure proudly kept her hands on her hips. “Many products in the store feature operators. All the products here are made or imported from local vendors but the packaging is entirely made on Rhodes Island. So I thought it'd be nice if we recognized some operators' contributions by putting them on the products. In Grani's case, she did a good job during a mission to Kaizimierz awhile back.” Jay looked at the box and admired the picture of Grani posing next to a bowl of cereal flakes with milk being poured into it. “That's it! This is my new goal. I'm gonna get on a cereal box!” Jay giddily declared. Closure and Spark stared at him blankly. “Huh, I was kinda expecting for you to reach for the stars but I guess that's a start,” Spark replied with a shrug and smile.
2020.06.09 07:10 CambionClanVampires Disappear, Replaced by Revenants
A few years back I thought of an interesting alternative setting for V:tM, I wanted to talk a bit about it and maybe get some feedback. Centuries ago, all of the vampires disappeared for some unknown reason. Since then, what has arisen in their place has been the Revenant families. These families all have their legends of how their creators might have disappeared, but none know for sure. Over time, the families have grown into powerful organizations, having great wealth in the mortal world along with their own organizations and laws. To make things a bit more interesting, I beefed up the Disciplines and powers available to the Revenants a bit. The Genos is an organization centered in Eastern Europe, made up of those families who once served the Tzimisce. Bratovich The Bratovitch are the most savage and perhaps inhuman of the Revenant families. For countless generations they have removed themselves from humanity, living in dilapidated manors deep within the woods, raising animals and living almost as animals themselves. Many members of other families see the Bratovitch family as more of a liability than an asset in the modern nights, though this bizarre family have proven their loyalty to the Genos time and time again and they are magnificent warriors, trackers, animal trainers, and scouts. In the modern era, what little wealth that these bestial Revenants might have had in the past has largely been lost and they are forced to do services for wealthier families in exchange for payment or simply live simple lives off the land or on old farmsteads. Grimaldi This family has dedicated itself to pursuing wealth and gaining temporal power. Among their ranks are businessmen, lawyers, bankers, and others who pull the strings of modern society. They are a forward looking family who easily interact with mortals and stay up to date on current affairs, allowing them to become perhaps the wealthiest family in the modern era. On the downside, because they have married into powerful mortal families through the ages, the vampiric blood in their veins is a bit weaker and they have less supernatural potency than most of the other Revenant families. Khavi The Khavi were once the fanatical servants of an ancient vampire that they considered a god. Worshiped this god and did his bidding without question. When the Masters disappeared, the high priests of this family continued to lead the younger members in worship, prophesizing that one day their god would return more powerful than ever before. In the centuries since that time, the Khavi have continued to await the day that god would return, conducting strange ceremonies far away from the prying eyes of humanity. As part of an ancient tradition dating back millennia, the high priests or patriarchs of the family took many numerous wives from among the women of the family, including their own daughters. To show their devotion to their god, they sacrificed male infants, leading the Khavi family to be comprised almost entirely of women. It is said that the families high priests who rule today are so old that they still remember the days when the Masters trod the earth. Despite the very patriarchal nature of the family, the Khavi are ironically one of the families where females have the most influence. As the ancient high priests are few in number and removed from the world, it is often their female children and grandchildren who run the practical affairs of the family. Few members of other families have even seen one of the patriarchs, they have become almost mythical. Today, the Khavi cling to their old customs. Their crumbling estates are always near water, in the depths of marshes and swamps, and they rarely interact with anyone outside the family. Where they live there are always legends of strange encounters, of lost colonies of mad lepers, mutants or witches, of strange disappearances and curses. They commune with the spirits that dwell in the stagnant water and the moss-covered trunks, under the moist earth and in the mist-filled air, and offer them their own flesh and blood in maddening pacts for who knows what purpose. Obertus The Obertus are a family of mysterious scholars and occultists. They are known not only for their libraries of ancient knowledge but also for their scientific endeavors and study of the strange mystical biology of Revenants. They also have a well known interest in experimentation on humans as well as supernatural creatures along with eugenics and breeding of sapient beings. The Obertus closely guard their secrets and are not only the mystics of the Genos, but information brokers as well. They are regarded as eccentric geniuses among the other families, for with their great minds also comes madness and obsession. Vlaszy The Vlaszy were once a noble respected family. They served the Tzimisce and knights and warriors, pledging their loyalty to their vampiric lords to the death. After the disappearance of their masters and absorbing several smaller families, the Vlaszy continue to follow the traditions of honor and obligation that the family has values for generation upon generation. Now they act as not only warriors of the Genos, but as police, mediators, and judges as their reputation still stands high among the Revenant families. They are also highly valued as diplomats and messengers both between the Genos families and among outsiders. Zantosa A competitor with the Grimaldi for wealth and power. For the Zantosa family, are not a goal in and of itself but a means to achieve pleasure and debauchery. Members of this family seek out and indulge in every forbidden pleasure and also gain influence in helping the rich and powerful indulge in their own hidden desires. As time has passed, the Zantosa have slipped a bit in worldly influence, but are still considerably powerful. The Onorata Società are another faction of Revenants, based out of Italy, they are descended from those who served the Cappadocians or Giovanni. Dunsirn Long ago, the Dunsirn were a reclusive Scottish family of cannibals and brigands. As time passed they were able to amass great wealth and even legitimacy in the worlds of banking and business. They served the old masters as both muscle and money, now they maintain a high place in the Onorata Società, second only to the group's ruling family. They have great wealth and power, as well as a veneer of respectability, though they still practice cannibalism and other unwholesome family rituals on their private estates. Rafastio The Rafastio are an ancient family of witches who hale from northern Italy. They once loosely allied themselves with the Black Hand, but since the disappearance of the Masters, they have turned away from the Black Hand. The Leaders of the Black Hand would not tolerate this affront, especially since the Rafastio knew too many of their secrets, and have ruthlessly hunted the Rafastio ever since. The Rafastio, being an ancient family of mystics and haling from Italy just as the Rossellini did, formed an alliance and joined the Onorata Società, conditionally providing their mystical knowledge and abilities for access to some of the safety and resources that the Onorata Società could provide. They are still very secretive and like to maintain their independence, though they do their duty when called upon. Rossellini Known as the Rossius in ancient times, this family of potent Necromancers trace their lineage back to Ancient Rome. For many years they fought bitterly for rulership over the Onorata Società with another Italian Necromancer family, the Giovanni. The Rossellini were eventually victorious and the Giovanni fell from influence, leaving the Rossellini as the uncontested masters of Necromancy and the Onorata Società. While not as closely tied to the world of mortals as many other families, they make up for this with the potent command of Necromancy, their ability to acquire knowledge and information, and the ruthless will to use them to greatest effect. Giovanni and the Minor Families It is said that, among all the families chosen by the ancient masters, the Giovanni were the most favored. Many of them were given the Blood, and they grew out of their relatively humble merchant roots into what showed promise of a world power. Like many Italian merchants of the Renaissance, they even meddled in politics. But all that came to an end when the Masters disappeared. Suddenly, the Giovanni were left without their protectors, and surrounded by enemies, specifically the Rossellini. Outcompeted by their rivals, the Giovanni fell hard, being forced to scatter in all directions and intermarry with minor families like the Putanesca. But the elders of the family swore vengeance. In the last several centuries, they have been crawling out of the gutter, not as merchants, but as political schemers and manipulators. They have wormed their way into the Masons, the Carbonarii, the Catholic Church, the Organized Crime families and many political parties, in Italy and elsewhere. While the Rossellini stayed more or less true to their roots as Necromancers, the Giovanni family branched out and intermarried with a number of other families around the world, known either for their mystical abilities, great wealth and influence, or both. The most prominent of the minor families are the Giovanni, but there are many other minor families such as the Rothsteins, the Pisanob, the Putanesca, Milliners, and Della Passaglia. The Rothsteins are family with its fingers in organized crime, gambling, and banking. The Pisanob, a family which traces it's ancestry and master of Necromancy back to pre-Columbian Central America. The Milliners are a well connected American business and political family. The Puttanesca are a Sicilian crime family known for it's brutality. While the blood is quite among these minor families, collectively they are quite numerous, extremely wealthy, and influential both in the legitimate business world and the underworld of organized crime. Because they have so spread out their blood across numerous families, the Giovanni have lost much of their old mystical puissance, but they make up for this with numbers, wealth, and connections. The Black Hand The Black Hand is a cult like affiliation of families who worship a group of the ancient masters, believing that one day they will return and rule the world. They are the most diverse group of Revenants, drawing families and members from all over the world. They see a utopic vision of the future when the ancient masters awaken and become gods of the world. Enrathi Once known as slavers and child snatchers, the Enrathi still handle the dirty jobs for the Black Hand. They assassinate enemies, intimidate victims, are involved in organized crime including the trade of sex slaves, and just as days of old - they capture children to become chatterlings. These children are no longer turned into vampires, but either raised as fanatical child soldiers in service to the Black Hand or used as breeding stock for expanding the numbers of the Black Hand families. Keskinen This strange family of mystics and madmen are said to fear the light of day as much as the ancient masters did. It has long been their desire to blot the sun from the sky and to do so they have been seeking out mystical knowledge over the centuries. Though not originally aligned with the Black Hand, they came to believe that by darkening the sun, they could reawaken the ancient masters and so they became incorporated this belief into the Black Hand cult dedicated to the greatest of the masters. Krevcheski This family was once tied to the Genos, but betrayed them long ago and fled to the Black Hand for help. The Krevcheski were once known as skillful craftsmen, scholars, and engineers. Today, they still pride themselves on being well educated and skillful, providing a number of valuable services to the Black Hand - such as medical doctors, weapons and explosive experts, technicians, and computer experts. They also have access to stolen occult knowledge of the Obertus, something which has earned them to eternal enmity of that family. Marijava Once a death cult who served the ancient masters as spies or assassins, they now lead the Black Hand as high priests. This secretive family knows maintains the ancient knowledge of their slumbering gods, ready to create a new church when they return to rule the world. They indoctrinate the children captured by the Enrathi in the faith and seek to spread their message to mortals of influence as well. They are still not above using treachery or assassination to deal with troublesome nonbelievers. Katayama The Katayama are the only Revenant family to be created since the disappearance of the masters. They were created from some of the children captured by the Enrathi, using mystical knowledge which the Krevcheski took from the Genos before their betrayal. They are a weak blooded family with little mastery over supernatural abilities more common to Revenants, though they are also fanatically devoted to the Black Hand and increasingly numerous. Independant Families Kairouan The Kairouan Brotherhood, now simply known as the Kairouan, was created to be spies, assassins, and thieves by their masters in the ancient days. Given large amounts of independence even before the masters' disappearance, the Kairouan now revel in their independence. They have no loyalty to any other organization, but instead sell their services to other Revenant families for the same purpose for which they were created - to gather information, sabotage, assassination, theft, reconnaissance, and other missions involving stealth. D'Habi The D'Habi are perhaps the oldest of the Revenants, dating back to the ancient middle east. They serve creatures which even the ancient masters feared, or worshipped, demons or children of the darkness. Adept at both dark sorceries and social manipulation, the D'Habi family seeks to gain worshippers for the dark gods while amassing temporal power and preying upon human sinfulness. Some members of this family easily move through high society, while others are too touched by their masters and must remain hidden from the prying eyes of humanity. The Yiaroi, the Chosen Once called the Servants of Anushin-Rawan, the Yiaroi live exclusively on the small Aegean island of Yiaros. They avoid embroiling themselves in the affairs of other families, maintaining strict neutrality and peaceful relations with others. Their island has come to be known as a neutral place where members of the other families can arrange for meetings or merely find solace. The other families have agreed to respect the neutrality of the Yiaroi through the years have mostly respected the island as a sanctuary where meetings can be held. In this way, the desire to stay out of family politics has allowed the Yiaroi to gain not inconsiderable influence. Many say that they have dark secrets. There is a bit more, plus some rule issues, which I will spare you for now. Does anybody have any thoughts on this?
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country consisting of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.[g] At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2), it is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area[c]. Most of the country is located in central North America between Canada and Mexico. With an estimated population of over 328 million, the U.S. is the third most populous country in the world. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies led to the American Revolutionary War lasting between 1775 and 1783, leading to independence. The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century—gradually acquiring new territories, displacing Native Americans, and admitting new states—until 1848 when it spanned the continent. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the abolition of slavery in the United States. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power. The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower. It was the first country to develop nuclear weapons and is the only country to have used them in warfare. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. The end of the Cold War and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is a federal republic and a representative democracy. It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), NATO, and other international organizations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. A highly developed country, the United States is the world's largest economy by nominal GDP, the second-largest by purchasing power parity, and accounts for approximately a quarter of global GDP. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second-largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is 4% of the world total, it holds 29.4% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank very high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, median income, median wealth, human development, per capita GDP, and worker productivity. It is the foremost military power in the world, making up more than a third of global military spending, and is a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally. Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history 2.2 Effects on and interaction with native populations 2.3 European settlements 2.4 Independence and expansion (1776–1865) 2.5 Civil War and Reconstruction era 2.6 Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization 2.7 World War I, Great Depression, and World War II 2.8 Cold War and civil rights era 2.9 Contemporary history 3 Geography, climate, and environment 3.1 Wildlife 4 Demographics 4.1 Population 4.1.1 Major population areas 4.2 Language 4.3 Religion 4.4 Family structure 4.5 Health 4.6 Education 4.6.1 Higher education 5 Government and politics 5.1 Political divisions 5.2 Parties and elections 5.3 Foreign relations 5.4 Government finance 5.5 Military 6 Law enforcement and crime 7 Economy 7.1 Science and technology 7.2 Income, poverty and wealth 8 Infrastructure 8.1 Transportation 8.2 Energy 8.3 Water supply and sanitation 9 Culture 9.1 Food 9.2 Literature, philosophy, and visual art 9.3 Music 9.4 Cinema 9.5 Sports 9.6 Mass media 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links Etymology See also: Naming of the Americas, Names for United States citizens, and American (word) The first known use of the name "America" dates back to 1507, when it appeared on a world map created by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller. The name on the map applied to the lands of South America, in honor of the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci (Latin: Americus Vespucius). After returning from his expeditions, Vespucci first postulated that the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern limit, as initially thought by Columbus, but instead were part of an entirely separate landmass thus far unknown to the Europeans. Then in 1538, the Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator used the name "America" on his map of the world, applying it to the entire Western Hemisphere. The first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq., to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort. The first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America'". The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence. This draft of the document did not surface until June 21, 1776, and it is unclear whether it was written before or after Dickinson used the term in his June 17 draft of the Articles of Confederation. The short form "United States" is also standard. Other common forms are the "U.S.", the "USA", and "America". Colloquial names are the "U.S. of A." and, internationally, the "States". "Columbia", a name popular in poetry and songs of the late 18th century, derives its origin from Christopher Columbus; it appears in the name "District of Columbia". Many landmarks and institutions in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including the country of Colombia. The phrase "United States" was originally plural, a description of a collection of independent states—e.g., "the United States are"—including in the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865. The singular form—e.g., "the United States is"—became popular after the end of the American Civil War. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom "these United States". The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit. A citizen of the United States is an "American". "United States", "American" and "U.S." refer to the country adjectivally ("American values", "U.S. forces"). In English, the word "American" rarely refers to topics or subjects not directly connected with the United States. History Main articles: History of the United States, Timeline of United States history, American business history, Economic history of the United States, and Labor history of the United States Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history Further information: Native Americans in the United States and Pre-Columbian era The Cliff Palace, built by ancient Native American Puebloans around 1190 AD It has been generally accepted that the first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 12,000 years ago; however, increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival. After crossing the land bridge, the first Americans moved southward along the Pacific coast and through an interior ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets. The Clovis culture appeared around 11,000 BC, and is considered to be an ancestor of most of the later indigenous cultures of the Americas. The Clovis culture was believed to represent the first human settlement of the Americas. Over the years, more and more evidence has advanced the idea of "pre-Clovis" cultures including tools dating back about 15,550 years ago. It is likely these represent the first of three major waves of migrations into North America. Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies. The Mississippian culture flourished in the south from 800 to 1600 AD, extending from the Mexican border down through Florida. Its city state Cahokia is considered the largest, most complex pre-Columbian archaeological site in the modern-day United States. In the Four Corners region, Ancestral Puebloans culture developed as the culmination of centuries of agricultural experimentation, which produced greater dependence on farming. A Native American Lecroy Point flint arrowhead, 9000-7000 BC Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the United States are credited to the Pueblos: Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, and Taos Pueblo. The earthworks constructed by Native Americans of the Poverty Point culture in northeastern Louisiana have also been designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. In the southern Great Lakes region, the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee) was established at some point between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. Most prominent along the Atlantic cost were the Algonquian tribes, who practiced hunting and trapping, along with limited cultivation. The date of the first settlements of the Hawaiian Islands is a topic of continuing debate. Archaeological evidence seems to indicate a settlement as early as 124 AD. Effects on and interaction with native populations Further information: American Indian Wars, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, and Native American disease and epidemics With the progress of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced. The native population of America declined after Europeans arrived, and for various reasons, primarily diseases such as smallpox and measles. While estimating the original native population of North America at the time of European contact is difficult, an attempt was made in the early part of the twentieth century by James Mooney using historic records to estimate the indigenous population north of Mexico in 1600. In more recent years, Douglas H. Ubelaker of the Smithsonian Institution has updated these figures. While Ubelaker estimated that there was a population of 92,916 in the south Atlantic states and a population of 473,616 in the Gulf states, most academics regard the figure as too low. Anthropologist Henry F. Dobyns believed the populations were much higher, suggesting 1,100,000 along the shores of the gulf of Mexico, 2,211,000 people living between Florida and Massachusetts, 5,250,000 in the Mississippi Valley and tributaries and 697,000 people in the Florida peninsula. In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares. Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to cultivate corn, beans, and squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles. European settlements Further information: Colonial history of the United States, European colonization of the Americas, and Thirteen Colonies Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall With the advancement of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced. The first Europeans to arrive in the territory of the modern United States were Spanish conquistadors such as Juan Ponce de León, who made his first visit to Florida in 1513; however, if unincorporated territories are accounted for, then credit would go to Christopher Columbus who landed in Puerto Rico on his 1493 voyage. The Spanish set up the first settlements in Florida and New Mexico such as Saint Augustine and Santa Fe. The French established their own as well along the Mississippi River. Successful English settlement on the eastern coast of North America began with the Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and the Pilgrims' Plymouth Colony in 1620. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom. The continent's first elected legislative assembly, Virginia's House of Burgesses created in 1619, the Mayflower Compact, signed by the Pilgrims before disembarking, and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, established precedents for the pattern of representative self-government and constitutionalism that would develop throughout the American colonies. Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. Cash crops included tobacco, rice, and wheat. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber. Manufacturers produced rum and ships, and by the late colonial period, Americans were producing one-seventh of the world's iron supply. Cities eventually dotted the coast to support local economies and serve as trade hubs. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups. As coastal land grew more expensive, freed indentured servants pushed further west. European territorial claims during the mid-18th century A large-scale slave trade with English privateers was begun. The life expectancy of slaves was much higher in North America than further south, because of less disease and better food and treatment, leading to a rapid increase in the numbers of slaves. Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of slavery, and colonies passed acts for and against the practice. But by the turn of the 18th century, African slaves were replacing indentured servants for cash crop labor, especially in southern regions. With the establishment of the Province of Georgia in 1732, the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were administered by the British as overseas dependencies. All nonetheless had local governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the ancient rights of Englishmen and a sense of self-government stimulating support for republicanism. With extremely high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed. The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest both in religion and in religious liberty. During the Seven Years' War (in the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about a third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas. The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their success motivated monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority. In 1774, the Spanish Navy ship Santiago, under Juan Pérez, entered and anchored in an inlet of Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, in present-day British Columbia. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California. At the time, the Spanish were able to monopolize the trade between Asia and North America, granting limited licenses to the Portuguese. When the Russians began establishing a growing fur trading system in Alaska, the Spanish began to challenge the Russians, with Pérez's voyage being the first of many to the Pacific Northwest.[h] During his third and final voyage, Captain James Cook became the first European to begin formal contact with Hawaii. Captain Cook's last voyage included sailing along the coast of North America and Alaska searching for a Northwest Passage for approximately nine months. Independence and expansion (1776–1865) Further information: American Revolutionary War, United States Declaration of Independence, American Revolution, and Territorial evolution of the United States Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull The American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war of independence against a European power. Americans had developed an ideology of "republicanism" asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures. They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war. The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence, which recognized in a long preamble that their unalienable rights were not being protected by Great Britain. The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day: "... where, heretofore, the words 'United Colonies' have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the 'United States'". In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a decentralized government that operated until 1789. Map of territorial acquisitions of the United States between 1783 and 1917 Following the decisive Franco-American victory at Yorktown in 1781, Britain signed the peace treaty of 1783, and American sovereignty was internationally recognized and the country was granted all lands east of the Mississippi River. Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States Constitution, ratified in state conventions in 1788. The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in 1789. George Washington, who had led the Continental Army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in 1791. Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in 1808, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the slave population. The Second Great Awakening, especially 1800–1840, converted millions to evangelical Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism; in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations. Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of American Indian Wars. The Louisiana Purchase of French-claimed territory in 1803 almost doubled the nation's area. The War of 1812, declared against Britain over various grievances and fought to a draw, strengthened U.S. nationalism. A series of military incursions into Florida led Spain to cede it and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819. The expansion was aided by steam power, when steamboats began traveling along America's large water systems, many of which were connected by new canals, such as the Erie and the I&M; then, even faster railroads began their stretch across the nation's land. American bison grazing The Gateway Arch, in St. Louis, Missouri, was built in 1965 to commemorate the westward expansion of the United States. From 1820 to 1850, Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from 1828 to 1854. The Trail of Tears in the 1830s exemplified the Indian removal policy that forcibly resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations. The U.S. annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845 during a period of expansionist Manifest destiny. The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest. Victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest. The California Gold Rush of 1848–49 spurred migration to the Pacific coast, which led to the California Genocide and the creation of additional western states. After the American Civil War, new transcontinental railways made relocation easier for settlers, expanded internal trade and increased conflicts with Native Americans. For half a century, the rapidly declining buffalo struck an existential blow to many Plains Indians' culture. In 1869, a new Peace Policy nominally promised to protect Native-Americans from abuses, avoid further war, and secure their eventual U.S. citizenship. Nonetheless, large-scale conflicts continued throughout the West into the 1900s. Civil War and Reconstruction era Further information: American Civil War and Reconstruction era President Abraham Lincoln in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, November 19, 1863 Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War. Initially, states entering the Union had alternated between slave and free states, keeping a sectional balance in the Senate, while free states outstripped slave states in population and in the House of Representatives. But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery. With the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln, the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party, conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America (the "South"), while the federal government (the "Union") maintained that secession was illegal. In order to bring about this secession, military action was initiated by the secessionists, and the Union responded in kind. The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 618,000 soldiers as well as many civilians. The South fought for the freedom to own slaves, while the Union at first simply fought to maintain the country as one united whole. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after 1863 and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery. Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April 1865, each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which prohibited slavery. Three amendments were added to the U.S. Constitution in the years after the war: the aforementioned Thirteenth as well as the Fourteenth Amendment providing citizenship to the nearly four million African Americans who had been slaves, and the Fifteenth Amendment ensuring in theory that African Americans had the right to vote. The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves. Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, his assassination on April 14, 1865, drove a wedge between North and South again. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans. They persisted until the Compromise of 1877 when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of 1876. Southern white Democrats, calling themselves "Redeemers", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction. From 1890 to 1910, so-called Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region. Blacks faced racial segregation, especially in the South. They also occasionally experienced vigilante violence, including lynching. Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization Main articles: Economic history of the United States and Technological and industrial history of the United States Ellis Island, in New York Harbor, was a major entry point for European immigration into the U.S. In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture. National infrastructure including telegraph and transcontinental railroads spurred economic growth and greater settlement and development of the American Old West. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life. The United States fought Indian Wars west of the Mississippi River from 1810 to at least 1890. Most of these conflicts ended with the cession of Native American territory and the confinement of the latter to Indian reservations. This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets. Mainland expansion also included the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867. In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the Spanish–American War. American Samoa was acquired by the United States in 1900 after the end of the Second Samoan Civil War. The United States purchased the U.S. Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917. The Statue of Liberty in New York City, symbol of the United States as well as its ideals Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. P. Morgan playing a notable role. Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting. Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and the United States achieved great power status. These dramatic changes were accompanied by social unrest and the rise of populist, socialist, and anarchist movements. This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant reforms in many societal areas, including women's suffrage, alcohol prohibition, regulation of consumer goods, greater antitrust measures to ensure competition and attention to worker conditions. World War I, Great Depression, and World War II Further information: World War I, Great Depression, and World War II The Empire State Building was the tallest building in the world when completed in 1931, during the Great Depression. The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I in 1914 until 1917, when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations. In 1920, the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage. The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of early television. The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal, which included the establishment of the Social Security system. The Great Migration of millions of African Americans out of the American South began before World War I and extended through the 1960s; whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration. U.S. troops landing on Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy, June 6, 1944 At first effectively neutral during World War II while Germany conquered much of continental Europe, the United States began supplying materiel to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers. Although Japan attacked the United States first, the U.S. nonetheless pursued a "Europe first" defense policy. The United States thus left its vast Asian colony, the Philippines, isolated and fighting a losing struggle against Japanese invasion and occupation, as military resources were devoted to the European theater. During the war, the United States was referred to as one of the "Four Policemen" of Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union and China. Although the nation lost around 400,000 military personnel, it emerged relatively undamaged from the war with even greater economic and military influence. Nuclear explosion from the Trinity Test Trinity test of the Manhattan Project's nuclear weapon The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and other Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was won in Europe, a 1945 international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which became active after the war. The United States and Japan then fought each other in the largest naval battle in history in terms of gross tonnage sunk, the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The United States eventually developed the first nuclear weapons and used them on Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; causing the Japanese to surrender on September 2, ending World War II. Parades and celebrations followed in what is known as Victory Day, or V-J Day. Cold War and civil rights era Main articles: History of the United States (1945–1964), History of the United States (1964–1980), and History of the United States (1980–1991) Further information: Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, War on Poverty, Space Race, and Reaganomics Martin Luther King, Jr. gives his famous "I Have a Dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, 1963 After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union competed for power, influence, and prestige during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism and, according to the school of geopolitics, a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps. They dominated the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict. The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments, even supporting right-wing authoritarian governments at times. American troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the Korean War of 1950–53. The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the first artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first manned spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the United States became the first nation to land a man on the moon in 1969. A proxy war in Southeast Asia eventually evolved into full American participation, as the Vietnam War. At home, the U.S. experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments. In 1959 Hawaii became the 50th and last U.S. state added to the country. The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination. Meanwhile, a counterculture movement grew which was fueled by opposition to the Vietnam war, black nationalism, and the sexual revolution. U.S. president Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in Geneva, 1985 The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children. The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in 1980, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the more aggressive "rollback" strategy towards the USSR. After a surge in female labor participation over the previous decade, by 1985 the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed. The late 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the USSR, and its collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold War. This brought about unipolarity with the U.S. unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower. The concept of Pax Americana, which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order. Contemporary history Main articles: History of the United States (1991–2008) and History of the United States (2008–present) Further information: Gulf War, September 11 attacks, War on Terror, 2008 financial crisis, Affordable Care Act, and Death of Osama bin Laden The World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during the September 11 terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group Al-Qaeda in 2001 One World Trade Center, newly built in its place After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait, an ally of the United States. Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H. W. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield, a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm, in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy. Originating within U.S. military defense networks, the Internet spread to international academic platforms and then to the public in the 1990s, greatly affecting the global economy, society, and culture. Due to the dot-com boom, stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan, and reduced social welfare spending, the 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.S. history, ending in 2001. Beginning in 1994, the U.S. entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico by January 1, 2008. Trade among the three partners has soared since NAFTA went into force. On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda terrorists struck the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 people. In response, the United States launched the War on Terror, which included war in Afghanistan and the 2003–11 Iraq War. In 2007, the Bush administration ordered a major troop surge in the Iraq War, which successfully reduced violence and led to greater stability in the region. Government policy designed to promote affordable housing, widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance, and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve led to the mid-2000s housing bubble, which culminated with the 2008 financial crisis, the largest economic contraction in the nation's history since the Great Depression. Barack Obama, the first African-American and multiracial president, was elected in 2008 amid the crisis, and subsequently passed stimulus measures and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements and a relative decline in unemployment. Dodd-Frank improved financial stability and consumer protection, although there has been debate about its effects on the economy. President Donald Trump and former presidents Barack Obama, Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter at the state funeral of George H. W. Bush, December 2018 In 2010, the Obama administration passed the Affordable Care Act, which made the most sweeping reforms to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades, including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges.
2020.04.04 18:34 clemaneuverers"Sasquatch", "Wildmen", "Matlox", "Yeti" "Almas"; call them what you will; there are credible historical and contemporary reports and evidence, from around the world, that show mysterious Humanoid/Ape-like Mammals exist in the wilderness of the Earth's continents.
What follows is a massively abridged (by me) version of Chapter 10 of "Forbidden Archeology" by Michael Cremo and Richard L. Thompson. Reading it recently I found it enthralling, but I wished some of the things described were better illustrated (if at all!). So I spent some time searching online for the appropriate images. I then abridged and formatted the chapter for posting to Reddit, and inserted the pictures that I found into the text. I've included, at an appropriate part of the text, a link to more recent info relating to DNA discoveries ... Living Ape-Men? There are signs that humans may have coexisted with more apelike hominids throughout the Pleistocene. We suggest that humans and ape-man-like creatures continue to coexist. Over the past hundred or so years, researchers have accumulated substantial evidence that creatures resembling Neanderthals, Homo erectus, and the Australopithecines even now roam wilderness areas of the world. Hard Evidence Is Hard To Find In 1775, Carl Linnaeus, the founder of the modern system of biological classification, listed three existing human species: Homo sapiens, Homo troglodytes (cave man), and Homo ferus (wild man). Although Linnaeus knew the latter two species only from travellers’ reports and secondary sources, he included them in his Systema Naturae. Professional scientists have (1) observed wild-men in natural surroundings, (2) observed live captured specimens, (3) observed dead specimens, and (4) collected physical evidence for wild-men, including hundreds of footprints. They have also interviewed non-scientist informants and investigated the vast amount of wildman lore contained in ancient literatures and traditions. Many will say that all the wildman evidence mentioned above exists simply in reports, and that reports alone, even those given by scientists, are not sufficient to establish the existence of wild-men. However, in palaeoanthropology, as in many areas of science, evidence exists primarily in the form of reports. During World War II almost the whole collection of Homo Erectus fossils was lost during the Japanese occupation of China. The Homo Erectus fossils now exist only in the form of old written reports, photographs, and casts. And no one doubts that the originals did in fact exist. But what about reports by scientists who claim they saw and examined dead specimens of wildmen, the corpses of which were not preserved? Most scientists will grant no credibility at all to such reports. In one case the reports are believed, and in the other they are not. Why? We propose that reports about evidence conforming to the standard view of human evolution generally receive greater credibility than reports about nonconforming evidence. Thus deeply held beliefs, rather than purely objective standards, may become the determining factor in the acceptance and rejection of reports about controversial evidence. Cryptozoology ...refers to the scientific investigation of species whose existence has been reported but not fully documented. Is it really possible that there could be an unknown species of hominid on this planet? There remain vast unpopulated and little-travelled areas. In particular, the North-Western United States still has large regions of densely forested, mountainous terrain which, although mapped from the air, are rarely penetrated by humans on the ground. A surprising number of new species of animals are still being found each year—about 5,000 according to a conservative estimate. As might be suspected, the great majority of these, some 4,000, are insects. Yet, The largest of the bears, the Kodiak bear, was unknown to science until 1899. The largest rhinoceros, Cotton’s white rhino, was discovered in 1900. The mountain gorilla, the largest member of the ape family, turned up in 1901. The largest lizard, the Komodo dragon, was first captured in 1912. In 1975, the largest known peccary, or wild hog, Catagonus wagneri, was discovered in Paraguay. This animal was previously known only by Pleistocene fossils. In 1976, a large and entirely new species of shark, 4.5 meters (almost 15 feet) long and weighing over 700 kilograms (over 1,500 pounds), was caught by a U.S. Navy ship in the ocean waters off Hawaii. European Wild-men Many art objects of the Greeks, Romans, Carthaginians, and Etruscans bear images of semi-human creatures resembling wild-men. During the Middle Ages, wild-men continued to be depicted in European art and architecture. A page from Queen Mary’s Psalter, composed in the fourteenth century, shows a very realistically depicted hairy wildman being attacked by a pack of dogs. Wild-men were thought to live in caves and forests. They subsisted on berries and roots. They were not considered ordinary humans. They were said to be members of the animal kingdom. Northwestern North America In 1792, the Spanish botanist-naturalist José Mariano Moziño, in describing the Indians of Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island, Canada, stated:
“I do not know what to say about Matlox, inhabitant of the mountainous district, of whom all have an unbelievable terror. They imagine his body as very monstrous, all covered with stiff black bristles; a head similar to a human one, but with much greater, sharper and stronger fangs than those of the bear; extremely long arms; and toes and fingers armed with long curved claws. His shouts alone (they say) force those who hear them to the ground, and any unfortunate body he slaps is broken into a thousand pieces.”
Of the Spokane Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Elkanah Walker, a missionary who lived among them for 9 years, wrote in 1840:
“They believe in the existence of a race of giants which inhabit a certain mountain, off to the west of us. They inhabit its top. They hunt and do all their work in the night. They are men stealers. They come to people’s lodges in the night, when the people are asleep and take them and put them under their skins and take them to their place of abode without their even awakening. They say their track is about a foot and a half long. They frequently come in the night and steal their salmon from their nets and eat them raw. If the people are awake they always know when they are coming very near by the smell which is most intolerable”
Indians from the Columbia River region of the northwestern United States produced rock carvings that resembled the heads of apes. Anthropologist Grover Krantz showed photographs of the heads to a number of scientists and noted:
“Zoologists who did not know their source unanimously declared them to be representative of nonhuman, higher primates; those who knew the source insisted they must be something else!” Preconceptions seem to determine what scientists are prepared to see, and one thing most scientists are definitely not prepared to see is apelike creatures in the American Northwest.
On July 4, 1884, the Colonist, a newspaper published in Victoria, British Columbia, carried a story titled: “What is it? A strange creature captured above Yale. A British Columbian Gorilla.” Ned Austin, a railway engineer, spotted a human-like creature ahead of him on the tracks, blew the whistle, and stopped. The creature darted up the side of a hill, with several railway employees in pursuit. After capturing the animal, described as “half man and half beast”, the railway employees turned him over to Mr. George Tilbury. The Colonist reported: “‘Jacko,’ as the creature has been called by his capturers, is something of the gorilla type, standing about four feet seven inches in height and weighing 127 pounds. He has long, black, strong hair and resembles a human being with one exception, his entire body, excepting his hands (or paws) and feet is covered with glossy hair about one inch long. His forearm is much longer than a man’s forearm, and he possesses extraordinary strength” Myra Shackley noted:
“The newspaper account of Jacko was subsequently confirmed by an old man, August Castle, who was a child in the town at the time. The fate of the captive is not known, although some said that he (accompanied by Mr. Tilbury) was shipped east by rail in a cage on the way to be exhibited in a sideshow, but died in transit”
Furthermore, there were additional reports of creatures like Jacko from the same region. Zoologist Ivan Sanderson said about Jacko in one of his collections of wildman evidence:
“one of his species had been reported from the same area by Mr. Alexander Caulfield Anderson, a well-known explorer and an executive of the Hudson’s Bay Company, who was doing a ‘survey’ of the newly opened territory and seeking a feasible trade route through it for his company. He reported just such hairy humanoids as having hurled rocks down upon him and his surveying party from more than one slope. That was in 1864.”
In 1967, in the Bluff Creek region of Northern California, Roger Patterson and Bob Gimlin managed to shoot a short color film of a female Sasquatch. They also made casts of her footprints. These prints, which were 14 inches long, were 5.5 inches wide at the ball and 4 inches wide at the heel Several opinions have been expressed about the film. While some authorities have said it is an outright fake, others have said they think it provides good evidence in favor of the reality of the Sasquatch. Mixed opinions have also been put forward. A man could have sufficient height and suitable proportions to mimic the longitudinal dimensions of the Sasquatch. The shoulder breadth however would be difficult to achieve without giving an unnatural appearance to the arm swing and shoulder contours” Anthropologist Myra Shackley of the University of Leicester observed that the majority view seems to be
“that the film could be a hoax, but if so an incredibly clever one.”
“if any of them is real then as scientists we have a lot to explain. Among other things we shall have to re-write the story of human evolution. Critics, however, assert that all these footprints have been faked. Undoubtedly, some footprints have been faked, a fact the staunchest supporters of the Sasquatch will readily admit. But could every single one of them be a hoax?
Grover S. Krantz, an anthropologist at Washington State University, was initially skeptical of Sasquatch reports.In reconstructing the skeletal structure of the foot from a print, he noted that the ankle was positioned more forward than in a human foot. Taking into consideration the reported height and weight of an adult Sasquatch, Krantz, using his knowledge of physical anthropology, calculated just how far forward the ankle would have to be set. Returning to the prints, he found that the position of the ankle exactly matched his theoretical calculations.
“That’s when I decided the thing is real,”
“There is no way a faker could have known how far forward to set that ankle. It took me a couple of months to work it out with the casts in hand, so you have to figure how much smarter a faker would’ve had to be”
Typically the prints are 14 to 18 inches long and 5 to 9 inches wide, giving a surface roughly 3 to 4 times larger than that of an average human foot. Hence the popular name Bigfoot. To make a Sasquatch footprint as deep as an average human footprint would require a weight 3 to 4 times greater than that of an average-sized man. In all cases, however, whether the prints are in snow, mud, dirt, or wet sand, the Sasquatch prints are much deeper than those made by a man walking right next to them in the same material. Thus a weight of more than 3 or 4 times that of a man is required to make the Sasquatch prints. A 200-pound man would have to be carrying at least 500 pounds to make a good print. There are reports of series of prints extending from three-quarters of a mile up to several miles, in deserted regions far away from the nearest roads. The stride length of a Sasquatch varies from 4 to 6 feet (the stride length of an average man is about 3 feet). Try walking a mile with at least 500 pounds on your back and taking strides 5 feet long. In several cases, the Sasquatch footprints indicated the maker strode over large logs, which a human of normal size could not have gotten over without disturbing the fresh snow clearly visible on their tops. In some cases, the distance between the toes of the footprints varied from one print to the next in a single series of prints. This means that besides all the other problems facing a hoaxer, he would have had to incorporate moving parts into his artificial feet. Furthermore, in order to insure that some of his fake prints would be found, any hoaxer would probably have had to make more trails of footprints than were actually discovered—and that means a lot of work. In conclusion, critics have failed to explain all the footprints as the work of hoaxers. It would seem, therefore, that the footprints argue strongly for the reality of the Sasquatch, as demonstrated by the following case. On June 10, 1982, Paul Freeman, a U.S. Forest Service patrolman tracking elk in the Walla Walla district of Washington State, observed a hairy biped around 8 feet tall, standing about 60 yards from him. After 30 seconds, the large animal walked away. Krantz studied casts of the creature’s footprints and found dermal ridges, sweat pores, and other features in the proper places for large primate feet. Detailed skin impressions on the side walls of the prints indicated the presence of a flexible sole pad. Krantz solicited opinions from other scholars and fingerprint experts. Tatyana Gladkova, a specialist in dermatoglyphics from the USSR Institute of Anthropology, said:
“I see dermal ridges of the arch type distally directed. I see sweat pores. If it’s a fake, it’s a brilliant fake, on the level of counterfeiting, and by someone well versed in dermatoglyphics”
Douglas M. Monsoor, a master police fingerprint examiner from Lakewood, Colorado, stated:
“I see the presence of ridge structure in these casts, which, in my examination, appears consistent with that type of ridge structure you would find in a human. Under magnification, they evidence all the minute characteristics similar to human dermal ridges. They appear to be casts of impressions of a primate foot—of a creature different from any of which I am aware”
The majority of the Sasquatch reports come from the northwestern United States and British Columbia. However, there are also numerous reports from the eastern parts of the United States and Canada. For example there were, as of 1977, 11 reports from New York, more than 24 reports from Pennsylvania, 19 reports from Ohio, 18 from Michigan, 9 from Tennessee, more than 36 from New Jersey, 19 from Arkansas, 23 from Illinois, 30 from Texas, and 104 from Florida, 74 reports from Montana, 32 from Idaho, 176 from Oregon, 281 from Washington, 225 from British Columbia, and 343 from California.
“One is forced to conclude that a man-like life-form of gigantic proportions is living at the present time in the wild areas of the northwestern United States and British Columbia.”
Central And South America In Buckskin Joe, Edward Jonathan Hoyt reported an encounter he had in 1898 in Honduras. A large, apelike creature, about 5 feet tall, crawled over the end of his bunk. Hoyt killed the animal, which resembled a human From southern Mexico’s tropical forests come accounts of beings called the Sisimite. Wendell Skousen, a geologist, said the people of Cubulco in Baja Verapaz reported: “There live in the mountains very big, wild men, completely clothed in short, thick, brown, hairy fur, with no necks, small eyes, long arms and huge hands. They leave footprints twice the length of a man’s.” “it looked like a bear, but it wasn’t from the description that they gave—no conspicuous ears, no ‘snout’” Similar creatures are reported in Guatemala, where, it has been said, they kidnap women and children From the eastern slopes of the Andes in Ecuador come reports of the Shiru, a small fur-covered hominidlike creature, about 4 to 5 feet tall (Sanderson 1961, p. 166). In Brazil, people tell of the large apelike Mapinguary, which leaves giant humanlike footprints and is said to kill cattle. Yeti: Wildmen of The Himalayas Myra Shackley observed that Yeti are found in Nepalese and Tibetan religious paintings depicting hierarchies of living beings.
“Here, bears, apes, and langurs are depicted separate from the wildman, suggesting there is no confusion (at least in the minds of the artists) between these forms.”
After reviewing the available reports, Ivan Sanderson compiled the following composite description of the Yeti:
“Somewhat larger than man-sized and much more sturdy, with short legs and long arms; clothed in long rather shaggy fur or hair, same length all over and not differentiated. Naked face and other parts jet black; bull-neck and small conical head with heavy browridges; fanged canine teeth; can drop hands to ground and stand on knuckles like gorilla. Heel very wide and foot almost square and very large, second toe longer and larger than first, and both these separated and semi-opposed to the remaining three which are very small and webbed.”
In November of 1951, Eric Shipton, while reconnoitering the approaches to Mt. Everest, found footprints on the Menlung glacier, near the border between Tibet and Nepal, at an elevation of 18,000 feet. Shipton followed the trail for a mile. Already well known as a mountaineer, Shipton could not easily be accused of publicity-seeking. A close-up photograph of one of the prints has proved convincing to many. In 1956, Professor E. S. Williams photographed some prints on the Biafo glacier in the Karakoram mountains. Napier, who thought it likely that they were the superimposed prints of the front and rear paws of a bear, said
“It is impossible to state categorically that Williams’s prints are those of a bear and not of a Yeti, but in the spirit of Bishop of Ockham it seems more reasonable to explain a phenomenon in terms of the known rather than the unknown.”
Of course, in avoiding the relatively straightforward explanation that a peculiar set of tracks in snow was made by an unknown animal, one is forced to come up with all kinds of speculative hypotheses about the superimposition of prints of various animals and humans, or the transformation of such prints by melting, in a manner not clearly understood. And this would also appear to be a violation of a key aspect of Ockham’s razor—namely, that the simplest of competing theories is preferable to the more complex. Some Buddhist monasteries claim to have physical remains of the Yeti. One category of such relics is Yeti scalps, but the ones studied by Western scientists are thought to have been made from the skins of known animals. In 1960, Sir Edmund Hillary mounted an expedition to collect and evaluate evidence for the Yeti and sent a Yeti scalp from the Khumjung monastery to the West for testing. The results indicated that the scalp had been manufactured from the skin of the serow, a goatlike Himalayan antelope. But some disagreed with this analysis. Shackley said they
“pointed out that hairs from the scalp look distinctly monkey-like, and that it contains parasitic mites of a species different from that recovered from the serow.”
In 1978, Lord Hunt, who headed the British Mt. Everest expedition of 1953, saw Yeti tracks and heard the high-pitched cry the Yeti is said to make. Lord Hunt, described by Shackley as “a vigorous champion of the Yeti,” had come upon similar tracks in 1953. In both 1953 and 1978, the tracks were found at altitudes of 15,000 to 20,000 feet, too high for the either the black or red bears of the Himalayas. It is interesting to note that science has recognized the existence of many fossil species on the strength of their footprints alone. The hypotheses and reconstructions of cryptozoology (regarding animals actually alive) are no more daring, questionable, fantastic, or illegitimate than those upon which paleontology has based its reconstructions of the fauna of past ages. The Almas of Central Asia There is another wildman, the Almas, which seems smaller and more human. A drawing of an Almas is found in a nineteenth-century Mongol compendium of medicines derived from various plants and animals. The text next to the picture reads:
“The wildman lives in the mountains, his origins close to that of the bear, his body resembles that of man, and he has enormous strength. His meat may be eaten to treat mental diseases and his gall cures jaundice” Reports of the Almas are concentrated in an area extending from Mongolia in the north, south through the Pamirs, and then westward into the Caucasus region. Similar reports come from Siberia and the far northeast parts of the Russian republic.
Early in the fifteenth century, Hans Schiltenberger wrote in his book of the Tien Shan mountain range in Mongolia: “The inhabitants say that beyond the mountains is the beginning of a wasteland which lies at the edge of the earth. No one can survive there because the desert is populated by so many snakes and tigers. In the mountains themselves live wild people, who have nothing in common with other human beings. A pelt covers the entire body of these creatures. Only the hands and face are free of hair. They run around in the hills like animals and eat foliage and grass and whatever else they can find. The lord of the territory made Egidi a present of a couple of forest people, a man and a woman. They had been caught in the wilderness, together with three untamed horses the size of asses and all sorts of other animals which are not found in German lands and which I cannot therefore put a name to” Myra Shackley found Schiltenberger’s account especially credible for two reasons:
“First, Schiltenberger reports that he saw the creatures with his own eyes. Secondly, he refers to Przewalski horses, which were only rediscovered by Nicholai Przewalski in 1881. Przewalski himself saw ‘wildmen’ in Mongolia in 1871.”
“The book contains thousands of illustrations of various classes of animals, but not one single mythological animal such as are known from similar medieval European books. All the creatures are living and observable today.”
The Pamir mountains, lying in a remote region where the borders of Tadzhikistan, China, Kashmir, and Afghanistan meet, have been the scene of many Almas sightings. In 1925, Mikhail Stephanovitch Topilski, a major-general in the Soviet army, led his unit in an assault on an anti-Soviet guerilla force hiding in a cave in the Pamirs. One of the surviving guerillas said that while in the cave he and his comrades were attacked by several apelike creatures. The body of one such creature was found.
“It was covered with hair all over. But I knew there were no apes in the Pamirs. Also, the body itself looked very much like that of a man. We tried pulling the hair, to see if it was just a hide used for disguise, but found that it was the creature’s own natural hair. We turned the body over several times on its back and its front, and measured it. Our doctor made a long and thorough inspection of the body, and it was clear that it was not a human being. The body belonged to a male creature 165–170 cm [about 5½ feet] tall, elderly or even old, judging by the greyish colour of the hair in several places. The chest was covered with brownish hair and the belly with greyish hair. The hair was longer but sparser on the chest and close-cropped and thick on the belly. In general the hair was very thick, without any underfur. There was least hair on the buttocks, from which fact our doctor deduced that the creature sat like a human being. There was most hair on the hips. The knees were completely bare of hair and had callous growths on them. The whole foot including the sole was quite hairless and was covered by hard brown skin. The hair got thinner near the hand, and the palms had none at all but only callous skin.” “The colour of the face was dark, and the creature had neither beard nor moustache. The temples were bald and the back of the head was covered by thick, matted hair. The dead creature lay with its eyes open and its teeth bared. The eyes were dark and the teeth were large and even and shaped like human teeth. The forehead was slanting and the eyebrows were very powerful. The protruding jawbones made the face resemble the Mongol type of face. The nose was flat, with a deeply sunk bridge. The ears were hairless and looked a little more pointed than a human being’s with a longer lobe. The lower jaw was very massive. The creature had a very powerful chest and well developed muscles. The arms were of normal length, the hands were slightly wider and the feet much wider and shorter than man’s.”
According to testimony from villagers of Tkhina, on the Mokvi River, a female Almas was captured there during the nineteenth century, in the forests of Mt. Zaadan. For three years, she was kept imprisoned, but then became domesticated and was allowed to live in a house. She was called Zana. (artists impression) “Her skin was a greyish-black colour, covered with reddish hair, longer on her head than elsewhere. She was capable of inarticulate cries but never developed a language. She had a large face with big cheek bones, muzzle-like prognathous jaw and large eyebrows, big white teeth and a ‘fierce expression.’” Eventually Zana, through sexual relations with a villager, had children. Some of Zana’s grandchildren were seen by Boris Porshnev in 1964. “The grandchildren, Chalikoua and Taia, had darkish skin of rather negroid appearance, with very prominent chewing muscles and extra strong jaws.” Was 19th Century apewoman a yeti? 6ft 6in Russian serf who could outrun a horse was 'not human', according to DNA tests In 1899, K. A. Satunin, a Russian zoologist, spotted a female Biaban-guli in the Talysh hills of the southern Caucasus. He stated that the creature had “fully human movements” (Shackley 1983, p. 109). The fact that Satunin was a well-known zoologist makes his report particularly significant. Wildmen of China
“Chinese historical documents, and many city and town annals, contain abundant records of Wildman, which are given various names,”
states Zhou Guoxing of the Beijing Museum of Natural History. Two thousand years ago, the poet-statesman Qu Yuan made many references to Shangui (mountain ogres) in his verses. Li Yanshow, a historian who lived during the T’Ang Dynasty (a.d. 618–907), stated that the forests of Hubei province sheltered a band of wildmen. Wildmen also appeared in the writings of Li Shizhen, a pharmacologist of the Ming Dynasty (a.d. 1368–1644). In the fifty-first volume of his massive work on medical ingredients, he described several species of humanoid creatures, including one named Fei-fei. Li wrote:
“‘Feifei,’ which are called ‘manbear,’ are also found in the mountainous areas in west Shu and Chu division, where people skin them and eat their palms. The You mountain of Sha county, Fujian province, sees the same ones, standing about one zhang (equal to 3.1 meters [ just over 10 feet]) in height and smiling to the people they come across, and are called ‘shandaren’ (men as big as mountains), ‘wildmen,’ or ‘shanxiao’”.
In the eighteenth century, the Chinese poet Yuan Mei made reference to strange creatures inhabiting the wild regions of Shanxi province, calling them “monkeylike, yet not monkeylike” According to Zhou:
“Even today, in the area of Fang County, Hubei Province, there are still legends about ‘maoren’ (hairy men) or ‘wildmen.’ A local chronicle, about 200 years old, says that ‘the Fang mountain lying 40 li (2 li equals one kilometer [.62 mile]) south to the county town is precipitous and full of holes, where live many maoren, about one zhang high and hair-coated. They often come down to eat human beings and chickens and dogs, and seize those who fight with them.’A lantern on which there is an ornament of a ‘maoren’ figure was unearthed in this area during an archaeological excavation. It has been dated at 2,000 years”
In 1940, Wang Zelin, a graduate of the biology department of Northwestern University in Chicago, was able to directly see a wildman shortly after it was shot to death by hunters. Wang was driving from Baoji, in Shanxi Province, to Tianshui, in Gansu Province, when he heard gunfire ahead of him. He got out of the car to satisfy his curiosity and saw a corpse. It was a female creature, six and a half feet tall and covered with a coat of thick greyish-red hair about one and a quarter inches long. The hair on its face was shorter. The cheek bones were prominent, and the lips jutted out. The hair on the head was about one foot long. According to Wang, the creature looked like a reconstruction of the Chinese Homo erectus. Ten years later, another scientist, Fun Jinquan, a geologist, saw some living wildmen. Zhou Guoxing stated: “With the help of local guides, he watched, at a safe distance, two local Wildmen in the mountain forest near Baoji County, Shanxi Province, in the spring of 1950. They were mother and son, the smaller one being 1.6 meters in height. Both looked human” In 1961, workers building a road through the heavily forested Xishuang Banna region of Yunnan province in southernmost China reported killing a humanlike female primate. The creature was 1.2–1.3 meters (about 4 feet) tall and covered with hair. It walked upright, and according to the eyewitness reports, its hands, ears, and breasts were like those of a female human. The Chinese Academy of Sciences sent a team to investigate, but they were not able to obtain any physical evidence. Some suggested that the workers had come upon a gibbon. But Zhou Guoxing stated:
“The present author recently visited a newsman who took part in that investigation. He stated that the animal which had been killed was not a gibbon, but an unknown animal of human shape. It is worth noting that, over the past 2 years or so, some people in the western border areas of Yunnan Province say that the above-mentioned kind of Wildman still move about, and that another one has since been killed”
Consider the case of Pang Gensheng, a local commune leader, who was confronted in the forest by a wildman. Pang, who stood face to face with the creature, said;
“He was about seven feet tall, with shoulders wider than a man’s, a sloping forehead, deep-set eyes and a bulbous nose with slightly upturned nostrils. He had sunken cheeks, ears like a man’s but bigger, and round eyes, also bigger than a man’s. His jaw jutted out and he had protruding lips. His front teeth were as broad as a horse’s. His eyes were black. His hair was dark brown, more than a foot long and hung loosely over his shoulders. His whole face, except for the nose and ears, was covered with short hairs. His arms hung down to below his knees. He had big hands with fingers about six inches long and thumbs only slightly separated from the fingers. He didn’t have a tail and the hair on his body was short. He had thick thighs, shorter than the lower part of his leg. He walked upright with his legs apart. His feet were each about 12 inches long and half that broad—broader in front and narrow behind, with splayed toes”
Wildmen of Malaysia And Indonesia In 1969, John McKinnon, who journeyed to Borneo to observe orangutans, came across some humanlike footprints. McKinnon asked his Malay boatman what made them.
“Without a moment’s hesitation he replied ‘Batutut,’” wrote McKinnon, “but when I asked him to describe the beast he said it was not an animal but a type of ghost. Batutut, he told me, is about four feet tall, walks upright like a man and has a long black mane. Like other spirits of the forest the creature is very shy of light and fire”
Later, in Malaya, McKinnon saw some casts of footprints even bigger than those he had seen in Borneo, but he recognized them as definitely having been made by the same kind of creature. The Malayans called it Orangpendek (short fellow). McKinnon stated:
“Again natives spoke of a creature with long hair, who walks upright like a man. Drawings and even photographs of similar footprints found in Sumatra are attributed to the Sedapa or Umang, a small, shy, long-haired, bipedal being living deep in the forest” (Green 1978, pp. 134 –135). According to Ivan Sanderson, these footprints differ from those of the anthropoid apes inhabiting the Indonesian forests (the gibbon, siamang, and orangutan). They are also distinct from those of the sun bear (Sanderson 1961, p. 219).
In a journal article about wildmen published in 1918, Westenek recorded a report from a Mr. Oostingh, who lived in Sumatra. Once while proceeding through the forest, he came upon a man sitting on a log and facing away from him. Oostingh stated:
“I saw that he had short hair, cut short, I thought; and I suddenly realised that his neck was oddly leathery and extremely filthy. ‘That chap’s got a very dirty and wrinkled neck!’ I said to myself. His body was as large as a medium-sized native’s and he had thick square shoulders, not sloping at all. . . . he seemed to be quite as tall as I (about 5 feet 9 inches). Then I saw that it was not a man.” “It was not an orang-utan,” declared Oostingh. “I had seen one of these large apes a short time before.”
What was the creature if not an orangutan? Oostingh could not say for sure:
“It was more like a monstrously large siamang, but a siamang has long hair, and there was no doubt that it had short hair”
Mainstream Science and Wildman Reports Despite all the evidence we have presented, most recognized authorities in anthropology and zoology decline to discuss the existence of wildmen. If they mention wildmen at all, they rarely present the really strong evidence for their existence, focusing instead on the reports least likely to challenge their disbelief. Hand and foot bones of wildmen, and even a head, have been collected. Competent persons report having examined bodies of wildmen. And there are also a number of accounts of capture. That none of this physical evidence has made its way into museums and other scientific institutions may be taken as a failure of the process for gathering and preserving evidence. The operation of what we could call a knowledge filter tends to keep evidence tinged with disrepute outside official channels. However, some scientists with solid reputations, such as Krantz, Napier, Shackley, Porshnev, and others, have found in the available evidence enough reason to conclude that wildmen do in fact exist, or, at least, that the question of their existence is worthy of serious study. Myra Shackley wrote to our researcher Steve Bernath on December 4, 1984:
“As you know, this whole question is highly topical, and there has been an awful lot of correspondence and publication flying around on the scene. Opinions vary, but I guess that the commonest would be that there is indeed sufficient evidence to suggest at least the possibility of the existence of various unclassified manlike creatures, but that in the present state of our knowledge it is impossible to comment on their significance in any more detail. The position is further complicated by misquotes, hoaxing, and lunatic fringe activities, but a surprising number of hardcore anthropologists seem to be of the opinion that the matter is very worthwhile investigating.”
Date Issued - January 1st, 2053 Issued by the Foreign Offices of all Signature nations
The Nations of Europe a strong breed of proud, independent, and sovereign nations. A group of nations who stood triumphant against the Third Reich, against the Soviet Union, against Tyranny and Greed. A group of nations who have stood and stand for the betterment of the European Collective, for the betterment of our Allies. However like the people of Wiemar Germany or Italy, we have become deceived by the False Songs of a Seductress. We the Nations of Europe have allowed a Snake into our home. We have allowed ourselves to waltz into the waiting maw of a Lion. Officially - we reject and outright condemn the hegemonic control that the Dutch have attempted to push upon the Nations of Europe. We condemn their inaction while Hundreds of Thousands of North American lives rushed to our aid, we condemn Dutch actions to support Padania and the use of civilians in combat while the Entirety of Humanity faces it's greatest threat. We reject ongoing Dutch attempts to take and control the Men and Women of Europe. We reject the Dutch attempts to create a system of Dutch-puppet States within the EU Voting Member Board. No longer will we tolerate or accept, the Dutch nation threatening action and violence against the EU Members or those of the UN. No longer will we accept the Dutch placing their imperialistic ambitions before the survival of Humanity. When Germany was attacked, it was not the supposed European Leader - the United Kingdom which was the first to respond to the cries for help. It was our American, Canadian, and Commonwealth Neighbors who responded in force. Instead our supposed ally continued (even after knowledge of the attack) to support it's imperialistic ambitions in Europe. When the UN Sanctioned operations that included EU Members moved to eliminate the non-recognized Padania, it was the Dutch who used civilians under the guise of Padania orders against the UN led peacekeeping force. When the Dutch "Colonies" which they had stolen from the UCR in the Caribbean declared independence - they (Dutch) instead of fighting against the Unity, attempted to convince the American Republic to invade the Caribbean Islands in an attempt to retain Colonial Control. The same American Republic which was actively spilling blood to save Europe. As Columbian Republic, Canadian, and American Republic Forces stream in force to defend Europe, as Chinese and Japanese Armies come together to fight the supreme threat, as the United Commonwealth Realms puts aside it's difference with Brazil to fight the Hivemind - the Dutch remain content in attempting to secure it's vassal-state control over Padania. The Dutch contribution to the war against the Unity, has been a nuclear program which started the first-strike on Germany. The air contribution? Minimal. The Dutch represent the epitome of greed. They represent the pinnacle of self-serving decision making. However today that castle of sand has come crumbling down. Under no circumstances will we allow the Dutch to establish a "Grand Joint Command" under Dutch Leadership. Under no circumstances will we allow a Pan European Army, Navy, or Air Force to be led by the Dutch. Who have on multiple occasions proven themselves more interested in protecting the un-recognized Padania than in anything else. Officially the nations have agreed to retain the Pan-European Military Format - however it will now be led by a collective EU leadership working in close cooperation with NATO and DISCO in place of ever seeing Dutch Leadership. For those nations who have agreed to sign - that may not be in the EU, it represents a major shift away from Dutch Influence within Europe as a whole and should not be taken lightly. Thanks to Canadian Investigative Journalists and the efforts of DISCO as a whole, we have come closer to the truth. The truth being that the Dutch are the pinnacle of Greed. Europe will no longer surrender itself to the False Songs of Dutch Seduction. Europe will stand Proud, Independent, and Strong as it always has. It will stand alongside it's DISCO Allies as they sacrifice in the defense of Europe. They will stand with their NATO allies as they fight against the Unity. The era of Dutch Supremacy in European Politics has ended.
SMALLPOX EPIDEMIC MEGATHREAD If you're looking for the Bubonic Plague one, it's over here: https://www.reddit.com/TheGrittyPast/comments/fl9qib/historical_pandemics_megathread_bubonic_plague/ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Hey everybody! I know I've been out for a couple weeks. It's strange coming back. Everyone's acting like it's the end of the world...oh, wait. I do a lot of epidemiological history and have a boatload of sources, some that I've shared here before. I thought instead of making a post for each one I'd consolidate them into a couple smaller posts. Some of these I've posted here before, others are completely new. Peruse to your liking. Finally, if you're someone who would rather listen to these than hear them, I've made a podcast episode with some commentary on what historical pandemics tell us about COVID-19 and the consequences we'll have. You can find it here. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Their House Became Their Tomb - The Aztec's Succumb to Epidemics With the Columbian Exchange came numerous diseases from Europe. The Native American population was unprepared for these diseases, and between 50-90% of natives died shortly after contracting a disease. Two historical sources explain the desolation this brought upon the Empire: Fray Bernardino de Sahagún,Florentine Codex(1590) - [Before the Spaniards appeared to us again, first an epidemic broke out, a sickness of pustules. It began in September. Large bumps spread on people, some were entirely covered. They spread everywhere, on the face, the head, the chest, etc. The disease brought great desolation; a great many died of it. They could no longer walk about, but lay in their dwellings and sleeping places, no longer able to move or stir. They were unable to change position, to stretch out on their sides or face down, or raise their heads. And when they made a motion, they called out loudly. The pustules that covered people caused great desolation; very many people died of them, and many just starved to death; starvation reigned, and no one took care of others any longer.] Toribio Montolinia,History of the Indians of New Spain(1568) - The Indians did not know the remedy against smallpox…many succumbed also to hunger because, all taking sick at the same time, they were unable to assist one another. There was no one to give them bread or anything else. In many places it happened that all of the same household died. Since it was impossible to bury all the dead in order to remove the offensive odor that came from the corpses, their houses were [destroyed], and thus their house became their [tomb]. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The New England Epidemics William Bradford,Of Plymouth Plantation(1651) - [They fell down so generally of this disease as they were in the end not able to help one another, nor not to make a fire nor to fetch a little water to drink, nor any to bury the dead. But would strive as long as they could, and when they could procure no other means to make fire, they would burn the wooden trays and dishes they ate their meat in, and their very bows and arrows. And some would crawl out on all fours to get a little water, and sometimes die by the way and not be able to get in again.] Paul Kelton, “Avoiding the Smallpox Spirits: Colonial Epidemics and Southeastern Indian Survival,”Ethnohistory **(2004) - [**Smallpox infected some Upper Creek towns and threatened to spread throughout the Creek Confederacy. The Indians, however, “cut oﬀ every kind of communication” with infected villages and posted sentinels “at proper places…” Such measures reportedly worked.] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Outbreaks in the Ohio River Valley and Great Lakes Thomas Hutchin’s Journal, August 1762,Facing East From Indian Country: A Native History of Early America(2001) - [On] the 20th, the above Indians met, and the Ouiatanon Chief spoke in behalf of his and the Kickapoo Nations as follows: '"Brother, we are very thankful to Sir William Johnson for sending you to enquire into the state of the Indians. We assure you we are rendered very miserable at present on account of a severe sickness that has seized almost all our people, many of which have died lately, and many more likely to die….] Daniel K. Richter,Facing East From Indian Country: A Native History of Early America(2001) - [Despite such horrors, in any single epidemic many survived; statistically, the odds were a little better than one in two. Those who caught and endured smallpox would be immune to it for the rest of their lives…new peoples formed from pieces of the old. Most of the Native American nations that survive to our day were, to one degree or another, created in the melting pot set boiling by 17th century epidemics. The Five Nations Iroquois raided far and wide to replenish their disease ravaged population. One 19th century descendent recalled “Their plan was to select for adoption from the prisoners, and captives, and fragments of tribes whom they conquered. These captives were equally divided among each of the tribes, were adopted, and served to make good their losses [from smallpox].”] William Whipple Warren,History of the Ojibway People, Based Upon Traditions and Oral Statements(1885) - […Every day, however, their numbers decreased, as they fell sick and died. Out of the party, which must have numbered a considerable body of warriors, but four survived to return home to their village at Dead River. [In 1781]They brought with them the fatal disease that soon depopulated this great village, which is said to have covered a large extent of ground, and the circumstance of the great mortality which ensued on this occasion at this spot, in the ranks of the Kenisteno and Assineboine, has given the river the name which it now bears Ne-bo, or Death River. In trying to run qway from the fatal epidemic, the Ojibways of this village spread the contagion to Rainy Lake, which village also it almost depopulated. From thence by the route of Pigeon River it reached Lake Superior at Grand Portage, and proceeded up the lake to Fond du Lac, where its ravages were also severely felt, and where the Pillager party on their return from Mackinaw caught the infection, and taking it to Sandy Lake… The loss of lives occasioned by this disease in the tribes of the allied Kenistenos and Assineboines, amounted to several thousands. And the loss among the Ojibways, as near as can be computed from their accounts at the present day, amounted to not less than fifteen hundred, or two thousand. It did not, luckily, spread generally, over the country occupied by the tribe, and its ravages were felt almost exclusively in the section and villages which have been designated.] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Great Plains Smallpox Outbreaks Kim E. Nielsen,A Disability History of the United States(2012) - [People of the Kiowa nation in what are now Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico tell a story in which a Kiowa man encounters Smallpox, riding a horse through the plain. The man asks, “Where do you come from and what do you do and why are you here?” Smallpox answers, “I am one with the white men – they are my people as the Kiowas are yours. Sometimes I travel ahead of them and sometimes behind. But I am always their companion and you will find me in their camps and their houses.” “What can you do?” the Kiowa asks. “I bring death,” Smallpox replies. “My breath causes children to wither like young plants in spring snow. I bring destruction. No matter how beautiful a woman is, once she has looked at me she becomes as ugly as death. And to men I will not bring death alone, but the destruction of their children and the blighting of their wives. The strongest of warriors will go down before me. No people who have looked on me will ever be the same.”] Cherokee Oral History from 1830s, ***“***Avoiding the Smallpox Spirits: Colonial Epidemics and Southeastern Indian Survival,”Ethnohistory(2004) - L[ong ago the Indians were aﬄicted with some very awful diseases which do not now prevail. One of these diﬀered from the smallpox, or yaws, yet occasioned dreadful sores in the ﬂesh. When any one in a family was taken with that disorder the diseased person was removed, and had a hut, or tent, raised at a distance from any other habitation, and there lived alone. Then the priest was sent for to cleanse the dwelling just left by the diseased, as if some person had died in it. After this should any one touch the diseased, he would be unclean as if he had touched a dead body.”] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- "If I Live to Return I May Have Courage to War With 'Em" - The Letter That Helped Eradicate Smallpox Lady Mary Wortley Montagu is often credited as being the person to popularize the conception of inoculation among Europeans. Although it was well known before her letter in 1717 in the Middle East, it was not at all in Europe or the Americas. Her letter was subsequently published in theTurkish Embassy Lettersand brought attention to the process of inoculation, and latter vaccination: [ Letter to [Sarah Chiswell], dated at Adrianople, 1 April 1717 I am going to tell you a thing that I am sure will make you wish yourself here. The smallpox so fatal and so general amongst us is here entirely harmless by the invention of engrafting (which is the term they give it). There is a set of old women who make it their business to perform the operation. Every autumn in the month of September, when the great heat is abated, people send to one another to know if any of their family has a mind to have the smallpox. They make parties for this purpose, and when they are met (commonly 15 or 16 together) the old woman comes with a nutshell full of the matter of the best sort of smallpox and asks what veins you please to have opened. She immediately rips open that you offer to her with a large needle (which gives you no more pain than a common scratch) and puts into the vein as much venom as can lie upon the head of her needle, and after binds up the little wound with a hollow bit of shell, and in this manner opens 4 or 5 veins. The Grecians have commonly the superstition of opening one in the middle of the forehead, in each arm and on the breast to mark the sign of the cross, but this has a very ill effect, all these wounds leaving little scars, and is not done by those that are not superstitious, who choose to have them in the legs or that part of the arm that is concealed. The children or young patients play together all the rest of the day and are in perfect health till the 8th [day]. Then the fever begins to seize 'em and they keep their beds 2 days, very seldom 3. They have very rarely above 20 or 30 [spots] in their faces, which never mark, and in 8 days time they are as well as before their illness. Where they are wounded there remains running sores during the [pox], which I don't doubt is a great relief to it. Every year thousands undergo this operation, and the French ambassador says pleasantly that they take the smallpox here by way of diversion as they take [a bath] in other countries. There is no example of any one that has died in it, and you may believe I am very well satisfied of the safety of the experiment since I intend to try it on my dear little son. I am patriot enough to take pains to bring this useful invention into fashion in England, and I should not fail to write to some of our doctors very particularly about it if I knew any one of 'em that I thought had virtue enough to destroy such a considerable branch of their revenue for the good of mankind, but that [the pox] is too beneficial to them not to expose to all their resentment the hardy wight that should undertake to put an end to it. Perhaps if I live to return I may, however, have courage to war with 'em. Upon this occasion, admire the heroism in the heart of your friend, etc.] Considering smallpox has killed 500 million in history but since 1980 has been eradicated through the use of inoculation and vaccination, her letter certainly made an impact on humanity. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In my spare time I host a history podcast about crime, criminals, and their social context before the year 1918. You can check it outhere.
2020.02.08 12:41 mthmchrisWhat the coronavirus forcing me in lockdown's taught me about cooking; plus, how to make Mantou (馒头)
So there’s an offchance you might recognize my username: I’m the dude that’s posted weekly Chinese recipes here for the last… couple years or so. Together with my fiancé (who’s from Guangdong), we live in Shunde, China – a small city a bit south of Guangzhou on the Macau side of the delta. I’m sure you’ve been inundated with news about the most recent coronavirus outbreak over on this side of the world – I certainly don’t want to pile on and make you any more anxious than you need to be. That’s not my goal: social media does a good enough job with that as is. It’s just that… I feel like this time’s given me some personal insights on food and cooking that I haven’t really had the chance to internalize in the past. Maybe everything I’m about to write is all obvious to you, I don’t know. But I figured I’d share regardless. The situation we’ve found ourselves in See, for the past two weeks or so, the city we live has more or less… shut down. People don’t go outside unless they have to – we take our dog for walks up on the roof of our apartment complex, make quick runs to 7/11 for supplies every two days or so (because I mean… alcohol is pretty much mandatory in a time like this), and… that’s pretty much it. Restaurants are for the most part all closed down. The city is essentially on the economic equivalent of life support – the only things that’re open are convenience stores, grocery stores, and pharmacies. There’s checkpoints and roadblocks entering and leaving the city. Hell, every time we leave or enter our apartment complex we’re checked for symptoms by the doorman. The only people that dare to go outside without a medical mask are those unlucky sods that didn’t get the chance to buy any before supplies ran out. Now I don’t mean to paint too apocalyptic of a picture here. We live in Shunde, not Wuhan (which’s tragically borne the brunt of all this). A lot of these measures are precautionary, and… you sort of get used to it all. It sucks, no doubt. But it says a lot about human psychology just how quickly a new normal can become… normal. Feeding yourself is an interesting challenge, however. Completely by happy accident, out of any of our friends or family we’re probably the most prepared for this kind of situation. We do a YouTube cooking thing, after all. We test a lot of recipes. Our cabinets, fridges, freezers are stocked with leftovers, sauces, nuts, dried seafood and mushrooms, frozen meats, pickles, tubers, grains… shit, we could probably live for a month off our food stock alone and not starve. And while we’re far from chefs, I do like to think we know a thing or two about cooking… so at least a portion of that month might actually be rather tasty. What I just wasn’t mentally prepared for, however, was the shortage of fresh vegetables. Veggies were pretty much the first thing to go after medical masks. If you’re anything like me, the thought of that makes you feel… claustrophobic. No fresh vegetables for potentially weeks on end. The walls start closing in… Luckily of course, we don’t live in the epicenter of all this. Where we live at least, you can get fresh vegetables. It’s just not super easy. Supermarkets get one shipment in a day and you pretty much have to order online ~30 minutes from that time before they sell out. You pretty much don’t have a choice in what you get – when you’re in that window you’ll take what you can get. Chilis, carrots, and broccoli are usually available. Anything else is a crapshoot. But it’s fine. Buy what you can. Pickiness is luxury. What this does to your mindset I think everyone that’s a devoted homecook is pretty experienced with cleaning out their fridge before stuff goes bad. We’ve all had those fuck it, let’s feed myself stews, sandwiches, and stir-fries. Some of them might’ve actually been pretty good! To me at least, that’s the ultimate test of the skill of a cook. A novice sees a sparsely populated refrigerator and thinks, “delivery”. An experienced cook can look at that same refrigerator and can see… possibility. There’s three ways that make our current situation unique to that… ever so common experience:
We have time. Lots of it. Too much, really. The epidemic has been a mandatory extended vacation for the majority of the country.
We don’t have much choice in ingredients. While similar to the normal exercise, we have this weird overabundance of some ingredients together with a shortage of others. Way too much carrot…
The supplies must last. What’s really the crux of the what’s made this situation such a unique feeling to me. Nothing is wasted. Every square millimeter of that broccoli’s used. I’m careful with how much aromatics I use. Because like, while it’s quite likely we’d be able to get garlic in the next time we squeeze in a food order, you never know.
All of these factors force you to be creative – day in and day out. You approach each meal differently. You don’t enter the kitchen with the mindset of “what do I feel like eating?” You enter it asking the question, “what’s the best thing I can possibly make with the resources I have?” Cooking with this kind of scarcity mindset’s been… eye-opening. An entirely different perspective. There’s a lot of rambling online about “creative constraint” – how limitations force you to be creative. Much of it has the tone of pseudo-scientific self-help bullshit (and given the replication crisis in psychology, who knows if there’s a solid scientific foundation for the idea), but after these couple weeks… I think it’s true. I mean… some of the best art happens with limitations – poetry in meter, painting on a canvas. Some other random shit I’ve internalized:
I have a newfound appreciation for cuisines from colder climates. In this kind of environment, you get a lot more inspiration from, say, Northwestern Chinese food than (central) Thai food.
Pickled vegetables seem to scratch the same itch fresh vegetables do.
On that note, modern Korean kimchi might be the greatest invention of the 19th century. The steam engine doesn’t have anything on kimchi.
Flour is amazing. You can do anything with flour.
Life would fucking suck without fermented sauces. We would be eating so, so much worse without soy sauce and fish sauce.
I’ll go over some of the stuff we’ve whipped up in the lockdown below, but first… there’s something that I’ve been mulling over for a while. I have zero clue if any of this’ll make sense, I’m kind of working through this shit myself. Hopefully my ramblings aren’t too boring… Why I think modern cuisine kinda sucks: There’s something that’s bothered me for a while. Stay with me here. Think of almost any dish that you can name. Anywhere in the world. Chinese food, French food, whatever. There’s probably 95% chance that that dish – or at least what you would recognize as that dish was first invented during the time period of 1750 – 1950. A few examples:
Mapo Tofu, 1874.
Modern (not fermented) sushi, 1750.
Neopolitan Pizza, 1889.
Pho, mid 1880s.
Modern Paella, 1840.
Beef Bourguignon, mid 1800s.
Eggs Benedict, 1894.
Char Siu Bao, 1924.
For any of these, you could obviously quibble about the exact dates. E.g. slaves in Louisiana were eating a gumbo-esque Okra stew that was labelled ‘gumbo’ since the early to mid 1700s, 1802 was simply the first recorded instance of the dish. You could do this exercise the list over, of course – hell, fermented narezushi can be traced all the way back to 2nd century AD China. But as you stand back, a mosaic begins to emerge. First thing you notice? Much of what we consider ‘cuisine’ is… surprisingly modern. Like, I know with Chinese food there’s almost an assumption that most of the food has thousands of years of history or something… nope! While it’s definitely cool that there’s a few dishes that you can trace back to the Song dynasty or even earlier… like it is the world over, most of the innovation (on the level of individual dishes, at least) seemed to happen post 1750. Second thing you notice? Most of the innovation stops around the time of world war two. Post war? The landscape of newly invented foods seems… pretty barren. The question of why has… knawed on me ever since I saw those puzzle pieces. Maybe it’s a mirage. Maybe if you were standing in 1870 England and you fired up your Victorian steampunk Babbage-engine equivalent of Wikipedia, you’d find all the dishes you loved seem to have been invented in the years of 1600-1800? Who knows. Food history is murky as all hell. After all, throughout the course of human civilization, people tend to write about Kings and Revolutionaries and Conquerors… not the cooks that fed them. But I think we at least need to entertain the notion that maybe there was some sort of special sauce that led to that Cambrian explosion of dishes in those two centuries. I’m still not sure if I have an answer – in fact, I’m pretty sure that I don’t. Some possible reasons for the upsurge of recorded dishes mid 18th century:
The Columbian exchange/the entire colonial project introduced novel ingredients from around the world and touched almost every society. Obviously this process started in the 16th century, but it was a couple centuries yet before it people started eating tomatoes in Italy and chilis in Sichuan.
The development of the restaurant. Restaurants became common in China in the Song dynasty (I believe, don’t hold me to that) and in the West in the 19th century. This seems to coincide with a greater diversity in recorded dishes in both those places.
The printing press could be another possibility. The dates aren’t quite as neat though, as the first printed cookbook was in 1485. But cookbooks began gaining popularity in the mid 17th century, so maybe.
Or perhaps any number of those reasons. Or perhaps a combination. I don’t know, I’m far from a historian. As to some possible culprits of the decline of cooking:
The electric refrigerator became commonplace in 1940s, potentially killing the creativity-inducing ‘scarcity mindset’
Women in the workplace became much more common post war. Obviously a very good and beneficial development from a societal perspective, but perhaps the loss of half of society devoted to the job of cooking may have harmed cuisine?
Mass production of full meals – in the form of TV dinners and began in earnest in the post-war period.
Again, I’m not sure the answer. If you pressed me before this whole coronavirus lockdown episode, I’d probably have told you that modernism and mass production is to blame. Now… I’m not so sure. I think time has something to do with it, potentially. I can’t seem to find any good data on the topic for the pre-war period, but in 1965 women in America spent – on average – two hours a day cooking. Now women spend an average of 51 minutes (men, 22 minutes… c’mon guys…). Despite what the “QUICK AND EASY!!!!!!” bloggers of the world tell you, you can prepare much better food in the time of two hours than you can in 22 minutes. Mix that with a dash of scarcity induced creative limitation? The entire society over? That seems like a recipe for some good food. Why modern ‘fusion’ is boring: Which brings us to the other great culinary mystery our time: why does fusion suck so hard? Because I mean, if you look at cuisines around the world… the cultures at the intersection of great migrations or trade routes seem to have some pretty damn interesting food. Situated in the middle of the silk road, Uighur cuisine is an awesome mix between Northwestern Han Chinese and other central Asian foods. Sichuanese food, meanwhile, was the product of one of the most massive internal migrations of human history, when the province was repopulated by people from Hunan and Shandong after a devasting war (the Qing government kinda killed… everyone). The food in the Malacca straights, with the mix of Southeast Asian, Indian and Chinese flavors is aggressively awesome. Istanbul – at the crossroads of Occident and Orient - is one of the world’s great food cities. So why, despite all of our best efforts in the past forty years, have our culinary mashups seemed to go basically nowhere? Like, seriously. With a touch of digging, you can have an entire globe’s worth of ingredients available to you. With the smallest amount of gumption, you can have authentic recipes and techniques the world over demonstratedto you in video form. When it was just out-of-touch white American chefs mindlessly smushing together high end French and Japanese food in the 80s, you could kind of get why “fusion” sucked: it was pretty much the dictionary definition of pretention. But now… now we have all these resources… now we have so much more diversity in chefs… and the best the great culinary minds of our generation can come up with is… fucking Kung Pao Pastrami? Seriously? It circles back to the importance of limitations, I think. Limitations help break you out of functional fixedness - i.e. limiting yourself to using an object only in the way it’s traditionally used. The most famous example of this is the “candle box problem” in psychology:
Participants were shown a picture containing several products on a table: a candle, a pack of matches, and a box of tacks, all of which were next to a wall. Participants’ task was to figure out how to attach the candle to the wall by using only the objects on the table, so that the candle burns properly and does not drip wax on the table or the floor.
This is the answer, if you’re curious. Now again, I don’t like using psychology studies to prove a point because (a) I am not a psychologist and (b) there’s a rich history of other not-psychologist-people twisting studies and taking them out of context in order to peddle BS. But with that preface out of the way, I still think the concept of functional fixedness can at least help us give some sort of framework as to why fusion – still – sucks. Let’s take a look at this Wagyu Beef Bao Bun from Wolfgang Puck. I’m sure it tastes fine, I’m not going to argue otherwise. But what I will argue is that that dish is goddam boring, and probably not worth the premium. Why? The “Bao Bun” there (god, I hate that translation) is simply conceptualized as sandwich bread. It’s not interesting, it’s just… a more instagrammable potato roll. So many of these trendy ‘Bao’ creations throughout the OECD are just hipsters putting Asian shit on steamed buns and the media patting them on the back for their ingenuity. But there’s nothing ingenious there. It’s… a sandwich. A decade later, food trends’ll move onto something else, and we’ll forget the Bao craze even happened. Because at their core, most of these dishes are… forgettable. I don’t mean to be too much of a critic. The food industry is hard… I don’t blame any chef for doing what they have to to make a decent living (it’s really food media that can be cringy). But I think we can do better. One way out of functional fixedness is the “generic parts technique”. If you don’t mind a quick copy/paste:
For each object, you need to decouple its function from its form. McCaffrey shows a highly effective technique for doing so. As you break an object into its parts, ask yourself two questions. "Can I subdivide the current part further?" If yes, do so. "Does my current description imply a use?" If yes, create a more generic description involving its shape and material. For example, initially I divide a candle into its parts: wick and wax. The word "wick" implies a use: burning to emit light. So, describe it more generically as a string. Since "string" implies a use, I describe it more generically: interwoven fibrous strands. This brings to mind that I could use the wick to make a wig for my hamster. Since "interwoven fibrous strands" does not imply a use, I can stop working on wick and start working on wax. People trained in this technique solved 67% more problems that suffered from functional fixedness than a control group. This technique systematically strips away all the layers of associated uses from an object and its parts.”
This is why so much innovation in food happened around the Columbian exchange, I feel. People were introduced to novel new ingredients, not novel new foods. So you get interesting shit like people in Guizhou fermenting tomatoes into a paste and using it as a base for sour soup catfish hotpot, or people in France pounding potatoes until sticky and mixing it with cheese. So I think one good way to make more… organic fusion is to simply grab an ingredient from another culture and just keep it in your fridge. Bonus points if you have no fucking clue how it’s actually used. In time, you’ll find what to do with it. Like, with the burgeoning popularity of Lao Gan Ma chili crisp, I heard some people online talk about how they liked it together with a bagel and cream cheese. I thought that sounded weird as hell, so obviously I had to try it. And you know what? Pretty good. Weirdly works well together - vastly more interesting than anything I’ve seen out of these ‘fusion-y’ restaurants. Because anyone can mix together some fish and shit and call it ‘poke’. Lao Gan Ma with cream cheese? That’s the kind of vision that only the most desperately inebriated could possibly concoct… A list of stuff that we’ve cooked during this lockdown: Now, I think I probably over emphasized my points in these last two rambly… sections. I’m obviously no visionary chef. I hold precisely zero illusions otherwise. I’m going to list out the stuff we’ve whipped up in the past two weeks, and you’ll probably say to yourself “uh, dude… really, that’s it? The David Changs of the world make way more interesting stuff than that”. And… I’d 100% agree. Not claiming otherwise. What I would say though is that I do think some of these concoctions have been surprisingly good. And this? This is from just two weeks of staying inside. Could you imagine an entire society of people with a lifetime of experience with the same sort of mindset? Think of all the stuff they’d invent! No wonder traditional food is so damn interesting the world over… In any event, in rough order of how much I liked them:
Guizhou-style Laoguo sizzling pan stir-fry, with Oaxaca cheese, Lao Gan Ma, and flour tortillas. So in Guizhou there’s a style of eating called Shuicheng Laoguo - looks like this, basically you toss a stir-fry on a sizzling pan and slowly munch on it (though some varieties’ll also toss raw stuff on the pan to let it cook/toast). This was mixed vegetables with black pepper pork chop, seasoned with mianchi (red miso), Hunan chili sauce, soy sauce, Hoisin, and chili garlic sauce. Usually it’s dipped in seasoned chili flakes, but we’ve just been using Lao Gan Ma black soybean chili. For the Oaxaca cheese, we just melted it on the pan bit by bit… then tossed in a flour tortilla (I know those were kinda overly thick, was trying out a new recipe) – the mix of Oaxaca cheese and douchi really, really worked. Heavily recommended, this was awesome – some restaurant should really serve this somewhere (probably in Guizhou… would be way easier to convince Guiyuang people to eat Laoguo with Mexican cheese than try to educated American restaurant-goers how to eat Laoguo-style). Really, the more I pay around with the flavors I kinda think Gui-Mex should be the thing lol. This would be even better with masa tortillas imo.
Tomato sauce with spicy fermented paste over Northern Chinese ‘cat ear’ noodles, with stuffed lotus root on the side. I know this really doesn’t look like much, but we got a small shipment of tomatoes one day and I thought to myself ‘eh, alright, I’ll whip up a quick roasted tomato sauce, why not’. No onion… but hey, whatever. I was running a touch low on tomato paste, so on a whim I reached for Guizhou fermented tomato paste – it’s the base of the aforementioned sour catfish hotpot, slightly spicy and pretty intensely sour. At first I was kinda pissed at myself for potentially screwing up the tomato sauce – the sour notes were totally cool, but the heat was… distracting. Sliced up a bit of carrot, tossing it in with water to let it all cook down. After that and seasoning with a bit of sugar, MSG, fish sauce, and black pepper… it actually really, really worked. Topped it over some freshly whipped up cat ear noodles, and ate alongside stuffed lotus root.
Blended Mexican-style hotsauce with Sichuan chilis and Laozao fermented rice. This one is kind of cheating because it was something that I first developed with a buddy of mine who runs a Mexican restaurant in Shenzhen. The original task was “make a house hot sauce that’s kind of like Tapatio but using Chinese chilis”. I ended up being really proud of the stuff. I won’t bore you will all of the details, but two cool points I think are (1) the water the chilis are blended with are soaked with Sichuan peppercorn – if you soak Sichuan peppercorn in this way, you’ll only get the floral quality, not the numbingness and (2) the vinegar is rice vinegar, Laozao fermented rice was also tossed in. The latter bit adds a bit of sweetness and a lot of complexity. This stuff was perfect drizzled on Mac N Cheese.
Pan-fried Guozengzong with the aforementioned hot sauce. Steph’s mother’s side is from Zhaoqing – city outside of Guangzhou renowned for their Zongzi (sticky rice dumplings). This is what they look like – the best sort are stuffed with fatty pork belly and mungbean. It’s a tradition to make them around Chinese New Year, and after swinging by to Steph’s parent’s place we got… loaded up with a bunch of them. In Vietnam they’ve also got a very similar thing called banh chung, which they’ll sometimes smush down into a pan and fry it. Pan-frying this stuff is awesome, and it also went great dipped in that vinegar-y hot sauce above.
Pork Belly and Kimchi Sandwich. Ate way too many of these things. This was thinly sliced pork belly that we had in the freezer from testing Suanni Bairou – Sichuan Spicy Garlic Pork. Basically, the pork belly is blanched until cooked through, then left to sit in the pot for ~3 hours to get a bit more tender. You slice it super super thin… like, 1mm wide. Makes for an ideal sandwich meat to be honest. Roughly equal parts pork belly to kimchi (maybe a touch more pork belly), together with a spread of equal parts Kewpie mayo, Dijon mustard, and Kimchi pickling juice. This was on some homemade crunchy wheat bread but I think that Rye would probably work best. Just a simple, good thing. Tried it with cheese inside too... doesn’t need it.
Stir-fried Mantou Buns. We were doing a Mantou (steamed bun) video for the channel, so we’ve had a lot of leftover Mantou. One thing we’ve heard that in the North of China, some people’ll cube leftover mantou and actually stir-fry them. We have no idea if this is actually how people do it, but on a whim Steph very lightly oiled a wok, toasted/fried the Mantou until golden brown, and seasoned with the same Chinese BBQ spice mix that you’d have on cumin roast lamb. Pretty awesome, very reminiscent of the grilled Mantou buns that you get at Chinese BBQ joints.
And again… I’m not trying to say that our cooking is awesome, or interesting, or anything. I know a solid chunk of you probably clicked on a couple of those links and thought to yourself “I dunno, looks kinda shitty”. We’re no chefs. There’s a reason we devote ourselves to researching authentic dishes/techniques to the very best of our ability… because precisely no one is interested in “mthmchris and leeleesteph’s wacky fusion fun hour”. What I am saying though is that this all’s forced us to be the most inventive cooks we’ve ever been in our entire lives… and this’s just from two nobodies with a camera over the course of two weeks. Imagine millions of people, many lifetimes over, with the same mindset. Iterate that function for a while. That is why ‘authenticity’ in food is a valuable goal, despite it being a… controversial word in many circles. It’s not that cuisine can never change, or that there’s only one recipe for any given dish. It’s about respecting the idea that (1) the generations that came before us were probably much better cooks than we are and (2) you can generally find a lot more interesting food by looking back, by peeking in dusty corners, than you can by inventing your own hack or whatever. That’s not to say that we all can’t be inventive, or have fun being creative. But when I’m saying that I want an “authentic” version of say, Bouillabaisse sauce… what I’m saying is that I’m looking for a recipe that is connected to and respects those cultural traditions. What else we’ve eaten Of course, not everything’s been mashups or whatever. Lots of bread and noodles (heavily recommend Ken Forkish’s Flour, Water, Salt, Yeast by the way… having some nice western-style bread during this time’s been awesome). The aforementioned Laoguo, Cantonese claypot rice, and Mac N’ Cheese have been other staples (luckily the 7/11 near us sells small cartons of fresh milk). But probably what we’ve eaten the most of has been Mantou – steamed buns. Mantou with chili crisp (if steamed) or condensed milk (if fried) has been my go-to snack. We’ve had a lot of them from testing them for the channel, but they’re so great to have around that we’re actually whipping up more, even after we’ve made the video (a rarity for us, usually we’re so tired of a dish after testing it’s months before we circle back). So to actually give you some actual content here, outside of my insane bourbon-and-cabin-fever-induced ramblings… here’s how to make some Mantou.
How to Make Mantou Buns
So there’s three primarily types of Mantou buns:
Northern Laomian Mantou. In the North, mantou are traditionally made with a sourdough starter called laomian (老面), which’s then mixed with alkaline ingredients like sodium carbonate to balance the taste. They come in two varieties – hard and soft. The taste itself is rather plain because they’re meant to be eaten alongside other things as a meal.
Southwestern Laozao Mantou. A really interesting Mantou from Sichuan, Guizhou, and Yunnan… this kind of Mantou also uses a starter, but interestingly uses fermented rice (醪糟) to make it. Usually yeast is also added to the dough as well, making for some super-fluffy Mantou.
Southern Mantou. These Mantou are a bit sweeter, and rely on baking powder and yeast. I’d venture that these are probably the most common Mantou that you can find at restaurants, especially abroad.
Eventually we’ll want to cover all three, but the southern mantou are the most straightforward of the bunch so that’s what I’ll show you today. Video is here if you’d like a visual to follow along. Seeing as there’s not really too much to this, I’ll try to be a bit more brief from here on out. Ingredients, Mantou Buns: Baker’s percentages in brackets. I’ll try to remember to do this.
All Purpose Flour (中筋面粉), 200g. For reference the AP we use here in China is 10.8% protein.
Water, 90g. Divided into two bowls, each with 45g. We’ll get to why in a second. [45%]
Sugar, 20g. [10%]
Instant Dry Yeast (酵母), 1 tsp. Or 2 grams. [1%]
Baking Powder (泡打粉), 1 tsp. Or 2 grams. [1%]
And if you end up deep frying these, you’ll also want the totally-mandatory condensed milk to dip them in. Process, Mantou Buns:
Thoroughly mix the sugar with half the water and the yeast in a separate bowl with the other half. This dough has a lot of sugar and yeast in it. Because a high-sugar environment can actually draw moisture out of and damage yeast, we’ll keep these separate for now.
Sift together the flour and the baking powder.
Slowly drizzle in the yeast water into the baking powdeflour, aiming for the dry bits. Then do the same with the sugar water. I always like mixing with a single chopstick for this kind of step.
Either by hand or using a pasta maker on the widest setting, roll the dough out thin. Fold it in half, then pass it through again – six times in all. This step will get us that classic smooth skin that Southern-style Mantou are known for.
With the dough in a sheet now, tightly roll it all up into a log, then roll it a touch longer by hand to get something ~25cm long.
Flour a work surface, place the log on, and gently press down on the bottom. Very gently, just enough to get a bit of an indent in order to get that classic Mantou shape.
With a sharp knife, slight the roll into eight pieces. Don’t try to use a bench scrape for this step – being less sharp, it’d slightly press down on the Mantou and muff up the looks.
Place the mantou on some squares of parchment paper, then in a steamer. Toss the steamer over a wok filled with 28C water, and proof for 15 minutes. Just for standardization sake.
Over the same water, swap your flame to medium-high and bring it to a boil. Once you can see steam pluming out of the crack of the steamer, set your timer for five minutes. We’re steaming this gently so that the Mantou doesn’t rise too fast and form air bubbles on the surface of the skin.
After that time, shut off the heat and don’t peak for five minutes. Then after those five minutes, take them out and enjoy!
Note that one common problem is for the skin of the Mantou to come out a bit wrinkly. This means that you either over-proofed the Mantou or steamed at too high of a heat. It’s ok if one or two out of the batch has a couple wrinkles – you’d rather these be overly fluffy than under-fluffy, after all – but make adjustments if it’s the whole batch. How to Deep Fry Mantou: One of the best things you can do with these southern-style Mantou is deep fry them. A couple cups of oil in a wok, heat it up to 175C. Mantou in, and after about 30 seconds give them a flip. Fry for another minute under golden brown, flipping periodically. Out. It’s a great way to use up slightly stale mantou, and perfect dipped in way too much condensed milk.
2020.01.15 00:53 CuteBananaMuffinHow the discovery of Paititi The lost city of gold" May change Peru for ever
Disclaimer : I don't claim to know anything , it's just a post for discussion , ideas ,theories and opinions . The following paragraphs are copy-paste with the intent to discuss the subject and nothing else. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- by Jim DobsonJanuary 11, 2016 Many explorers have died searching for Paititi: the Lost City of Gold, and many became convinced that the city was hidden in the last undiscovered regions of the Amazon. The infamous journeys to discover Paititi were also what inspired Sir Arthur Conan Doyle to write "The Lost World." Much has been documented about the divine sense of quest to discover this magical kingdom. From treasure hunters to archaeologists and explorers, Paititi has until now remained the subject of lore and tribal legend spread through generations. But now, a remote location in the Peruvian Amazon thought to be the legendary Lost City has been discovered and is the target for a professional expedition taking place this summer. The search for Paititi : The lost city of gold Inca traditions mention a city, deep in the jungle and east of the Andes area of Cusco which could be the last Incan refuge following the Spanish Conquest. The Spanish conquistadors pillaged Cusco for its gold and silver, they only discovered a small amount of bounty in the capital, and the bulk of the mass treasure has never been found. Just recently a Spanish Galleon that sunk over 300 years ago, was discovered off the coast of Columbia and possibly holding billions of dollars worth of treasure looted from Peru. In 2001, Italian archaeologist Mario Polia discovered the report of a missionary named Andres Lopez in the Vatican archives. In the document, which dates from 1600, Lopez describes in great detail, a large city rich in gold, silver and jewels, located in the middle of the tropical jungle called Paititi by the natives. Lopez informed the Pope about his discovery and the Vaticanhas kept Paititi's location secret for decades. Due to the remote location of the area, as well as dense mountains that have to be traveled, it is no wonder that Paititi remains so hard to find. Currently drug trafficking, illegal logging and oil mining are overtaking this part of Peru, and many amateur explorers that enter are often killed. Legendary explorer Greg Deyermenjian explains his extraordinary devotion to the area,
"The quest for Paititi, for the furthest presence of the Incas into the selva (jungle) beyond the ranges, began for me after having visited, in 1981, the site of Vilcabamba, the redoubt of Manco Inca - who did finally rebel against the Spaniards after enduring nearly three years of their increasingly harsh rule - at Espíritu Pampa in the forested plains of La Convención province to the northwest of Machu Picchu.
It was then that I began to hear about a site which lay hidden somewhere off to the east, where the Andes and the Amazonian rain forests meet in a riot of hills, ravines, and isolated peaks, all covered in jungle and crisscrossed by unnavigable boulder-strewn rivers and streams. And in 1984 I began traveling there, to the north and northeast of Cusco, first in the company of Cusqueño hunters who had made forays well past their holdings in Paucartambo, and then with the Quechua-speaking highland campesinos of Challabamba and Calca that I had met through them." Famed explorer Greg Deyermenjian "Beginning in 1994, we allied ourselves with Peru's foremost living explorer, Dr. Carlos Neuenschwander, who had been conducting his own investigation into Paititi and the significance of the Pantiacolla plateau since the 1950's. We were unable to raise funds sufficient for a helicopter, so we found ourselves following branches of the main trail that traverses the Paucartambo Mountains, down to the jungles of Callanga, southeast of Mameria, where we investigated potential sites that were spotted from the air by Dr. Neuenschwander years before. We found the very rough and decayed remains of an ancient Incan, as well as an apparently pre-Incan habitation, and we made a first ascent of another legendary tropical peak, known as "Llaqtapata". On our way back through the remote and dusty highlands of the Cordillera de Lares/Lacco that overlooks the Río Paucartambo/Mapacho, we passed through impressive and finely constructed Incan sites such as Tambocancha and Uncayoc, which must have at one time guarded these routes. Gregory Deyermejian (far left) on one of his numerous quests for Paititi (Photo By Javier Zardoya) By 1999, we were in a position to take a helicopter from Cusco, North to the Plateau of Pantiacolla, thanks to our additional alliance with German film maker Heinz von Matthey. We left the helicopter at the furthest point that we had followed as far as we could in 1993. We passed a relatively elaborate Incan retaining wall above the trail, then descended to the headwaters of the Río Timpía. Over the course of the next week we saw that the rough and totally overgrown trail continued ever downward, through the increasingly broken and precipitous territory of the valley of the Timpía. It was easier to follow the river itself, with its raging waters and huge slippery boulders and logs, than to try to directly follow the totally overgrown and uprooted remnant of a trail clinging to the valley wall a few hundred meters above. Thierry Jamin during an expedition in the National Park of Manú, a delicate passage on an undiscovered river. (Photo by Thierry Jamin) After having climbed now upriver, up and out of the cloud forest, to emerge back at the high alturas where we had begun, we soon ran into some wandering vaqueros, cowboys, who had driven the cattle to these lonely grasslands for unlimited grazing. From them we learned of an enchanted lake shaped like a figure "8", astride ancient ruins, in a perpetually rainy and cold area to the northwest. Thanks to the preternatural sense of direction of my long-term expedition partner, Paulino Mamani, as well as my GPS and an aerial photography generated map which showed such an unnamed lake in the area we approached, we found it. And here were a series of low Incan platforms and retaining walls, which, along with the remnants of Incan trail and retaining wall closer to the Timpía, constitute the furthest Incan remains yet found directly north of the Incan capital of Cusco. In the valley of Lacco,Thierry Jamin's expedition team transports supplies. (Photo by Thierry Jamin) It is here that an unnamed mountain range overlooks the Río Yungaria, a tributary of the Callanga, in the tangled jungles between the zone of Mameria to the north and that of Callanga to the south. I saw the beginnings of this isolated tropical range in 1994, when, from the confluence of the Río Yungaria and the Río Callanga, where Paulino and I were searching for some gigantic terraces that Dr. Neuenschwander had spotted years before from the air, I marveled at how precipitously the territory behind the Yungaria soared upward and away from the river, beyond sight. Then in 1995, from a high perch on the eastern edge of the Andes, as we were ascending from the valley of the headwaters of the Callanga to the highlands to the west, I caught a glimpse of the mighty peaks of this strange massif, which seemed to reach to a height quite uncommon for tropical mountains out beyond the Andes: while the entire range was enveloped in what appeared to be a thick mantle of green vegetation, the actual peaks were shrouded in what appeared to be perpetual cloud around the summits. Adjacent areas, as described by long-time Paititi seeker, Padre Juan Carlos Polentini, are said to harbor the extensive ancient stone ruins that could be the legendary Paititi." NOTE: Some portions of Greg Deyermenjian's writings have not been edited due to space restrictions. Visit complete manuscript here. Even civilian explorers like California based adventurer and photographer Fernando S. Gallegos have been inspired to explore the area. His detailed and fascinating account of reaching Pusharo, deep in the Amazonian jungle after surviving tarantula swarms and being stranded in torrential rains, shows exactly how arduous and dangerous the journey is. I asked Fernando what compelled him to take such dangerous journeys and he explained:
"I want to rekindle that forgotten sense of curiosity that we all seem to lose when we enter adulthood.
The thought of discovering some physical link to that part of our imagination we deem as unrealistic or impossible is motivation enough to reassure myself that perhaps some greater beyond all expectation still exists out there waiting to be found." Explorer Fernando S. Gallegosstanding by the Pusharo petroglyphs along with his guides (photo by Fernando Gallegos) In my exclusive interview with famed French explorer Thierry Jamin, I was able to get the most updated information as to the next steps in discovering Paititi later this year. What are your plans for discovering the Lost City of Paititi this summer? For about twenty years, my team and I dedicated our searches on the tracks of the permanent presence of the Incas in Amazonian forest. We looked for their main center of population: the lost city of Paititi. Since 1998, we have completed about twenty expeditions in the southeast of Peru. In 2009, we ventured into a lost valley, North of Cusco:
We have prepared our next exploration with the objective of reaching the "square mountain" and the lakes by helicopter. After several unfortunate attempts, we arrived at the conclusion that the helicopter is the only way to reach this zone. If we manage to finance this operation, the expedition will take place in July. It should last three weeks. We plan to explore the mountain in great detail, but also the lakes, thanks to the use of a ROV (automatic soumarin robot) and with professional divers. Several professional archaeologists will also participate in the operation. The probability to discover an important archaeological site, of the scale of Machu Picchu, hidden at the top of this mysterious mountain is very big. I am convinced that we shall soon experience the discovery of Paititi.
Critics have commented that further exploration to these remote indigenous communities will bring disease and cause harm. How do you respond to their criticism?
Communities of the uncontacted Kuga Pakuris Indians live in the Sanctuary of Megantoni, but not in the area we are exploring, which is very difficult to access. These Indians live in the hunting areas. The area of the "square mountain" is surrounded by vertical walls of nearly a thousand meters high and Kuga Pakuris never go to that area. We are in permanent contact with Matsiguenga of Megantoni tribes, who participate in our expeditions. This area is part of their territory, rather than the "uncontacted" tribes. All of our search campaigns are carried out within a legal framework, with the permission and participation of Peruvian authorities (Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Environment - SERNANP)
It would be quite possible to use the radar technology, such as LIDAR. But they are still very expensive for us. And nothing beats field research. The radars cannot perform the exploration in underwater lakes. This is the essence of archaeological research. On the ground, we use modern technology: GPS, drones, ROV, endoscopic cameras, scanners, etc. And this we can only do on the ground. The purpose of the operation "Paititi 2016" is to reach the famous "square mountain" by air, with the use of a helicopter. We have never tried that approach before. We want to spread the legend of Paititi through science. We need science and professional archaeologists to reach the lost city BEFORE the huaqueros or treasure hunters arrive.
In the North of the National Sanctuary of Megantoni, the satellite Pleiades located a strange quadrangular formation of one thousand meters near a mysterious square lake and near twin lakes. The Natives of the region assure that Paititi hides at the top of this mountain. (Photo by Astrium – CNES) This is the challenge of our research. We know, for example, that a Spanish team visited last September, near the Sanctuary of Megantoni without any permit, in search of Paititi. They are unfortunately not the only ones. Our satellite images of the "square mountain" were widely disseminated. Other adventurers, unscrupulous, may try to reach the area clandestinely in search of the legendary gold. Science must discover the site of Paititi first and return this great historical and archaeological treasure to the hands of the World Heritage Site. This is the challenge of our 2016 exploration." Rock face carving by Indians (Photo by Fernando S. Gallegos) THE HISTORY OF PAITITI EXPLORATIONS 1600: Missionary Andres Lopez discovers Paititi and writes to the Vatican about his findings. 1925: Percy Harrison Fawcett, the inspiration for "Indiana Jones" attempts first exploration to the area. The archaeologist and South American explorer, along with his eldest son disappeared under unknown circumstances during an expedition to find "Z" – his name for the ancient lost city. Brad Pitt is currently shooting the film "The Lost City of Z" about Fawcett's adventure and life. 1954: Hitler's photographer Hans Ertl discovered many Pre-Columbian sites and claimed to have discovered Plato's Atlantis in the Bolivian Altiplano. The Nazi propaganda cinematographer exiled to Bolivia where he went on to shoot the expedition documentary "Paititi". 1958: Peruvian explorer Carlos Neuenschwander Landa led multiple expeditions in search of Paititi. He discovered the Inca stone path, located in the mountains of Paucartambo, and was the first person to describe, document and disseminate Hualla fortress located in the rural area of Calca. In his expeditions he has concentrated on the plateau where he sought the city of Paititi. He eventually wrote the book "Paititi in the mists of History." 1970-2002:Carlos Neuenschwander Landa organizes several expeditions in the national park of Manú in search of the lost city. They land by helicopter at the petroglyphs of Pusharo. 1971: A French-American expedition led by Bob Nichols, Serge Debru and Georges Puel travelled up the Rio Pantiacolla from Shintuya in search of Paititi. The party's guides left after a 30 day agreement expired, and though the three continued on, they never returned. In 1972 Japanese explorer Yoshiharu Sekino contacted Machiguenga Indians in the area and confirmed that the expedition members had been killed by Indians. 1979: French-Peruvian couple Nicole and Herbert Cartagena discover the ruins of Mameria. For the first time, researchers discover inca ruins in Amazonia. This discovery constitutes the first scientific proof of the presence of Paititi. 1984-2011: Various expeditions led by Gregory Deyermenjian. These included the documentation of Incan remains in Mameria, the exploration and documentation of the petroglyphs at Pusharo, exploration and documentation of Manu's Pyramids of Paratoari, and others. 1997: Norwegian biologist Lars Hafskjold set out to discover the ancient tribe of Toromona, the origins of the Paititi legend. He disappeared somewhere in the unexplored parts of Bolivia and has never been found. 2001: The Kota Mama II expedition led by John Blashford-Snell located some significant ancient ruins in the jungle east of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia which are believed to be identical to those discovered earlier by Hans Ertl. 2001: French explorer Thierry Jamin investigated the site of Pantiacolla. The pyramids are in fact natural formations but Jamin discovered several Inca artefacts in the same area. 2002: Polish explorer Jacek Pałkiewicz undertook an expedition under the patronage of the government of Peru upstream on the Madre de Dios River in search of Paititi. He eventually became famous for locating the source of the Amazon River. He subsequently wrote several novels on his explorations including El Dorado, Hunting the Legend. 2004: "Quest for Paititi" exploration team of Gregory Deyermenjian and Ignacio Mamani discovered several important Inca ruins along branches of the Inca Road of Stone at the peak known as Último Punto in the northern part of the Pantiacolla region of Peru. 2005: Thierry Jamin and French-Peruvian Herbert Cartagena studied Pusharo petroglyphs and discovered large geoglyphs in a valley nearby. They reportedly found a "map" showing where Paititi might be located. Further expeditions were set up in the following years. 2009-2011: Various expeditions by Italian researcher Yuri Leveratto who reached one of the Pyramids of Pantiacolla. 2009-2013: Thierry Jamin and his group explores the valleys of Lacco, Chunchusmayo and Cusirini, in the North of the department of Cusco, on the tracks of Paititi. Accompanied by the Peruvian Ministry of Culture, they bring to light forty archeological sites, including Hualla Mocco, Torre Mocco, Lucma Cancha, Llactapata, Apucatina, Pantipallana and Chaupichullo. 2011: British expedition to investigate the Pyramids of Paratoari with Kenneth Gawne, Lewis Knight, Ken Halfpenny, I. Gardiner and Darwin Moscoso as part of the documentary "The Secret of the Incas." 2014: TV host Josh Gates and Gregory Deyermenjian searched for Paititi while filming "Expedition Unknown" for the Travel Channel. They were forced to return after running out of supplies. 2015: Paititi documentary directed by Michel Gomez, for the Peruvian national channel Latina based on Thierry Jamin's book "The Adventurer of the Lost City" 2016: Thierry Jamin will fly with helicopter research teams to further explore the newly discovered possible location of Paititi. Fernando Gallegos along the Amazon river in search of Paititi (Photo by Fernando S. Gallegos) Ancient "Lost City" Discovered in Peru - Official Claims - by Kelly HearnJanuary 16, 2008fromNationalGeographicWebsite Cut stones (top) and masonry walls (bottom) recently discovered in southern Peru could be the ruins of the legendary \"lost city\" of Paititi, according to the mayor of the town where the site were found. Archaeologists are being sent to the site to investigate the claim. Source Ruins recently discovered in southern Peru could be the ancient "lost city" of Paititi, according to claims that are drawing serious but cautious response from experts. The presumptive lost city, described in written records as a stone settlement adorned with gold statues, has long been a grail for explorers - as well as a lure for local tourism businesses. A commonly cited legend claims that Paititi was built by the Inca hero Inkarri, who founded the city of Cusco before retreating into the jungle after Spanish conquerors arrived. On January 10 Peru's state news agency reported that "an archaeological fortress" had been discovered in the district of Kimbiri and that the district's mayor suggested it was the lost city. Mayor Guillermo Torres described the ruins as a 430,000-square-foot (40,000-square-meter) fortification near an area known as Lobo Tahuantinsuyo. Few other details about the site were offered, but initial reports described elaborately carved stone structures forming the base of a set of walls. The state media report quotes Torres as saying the area will be "immediately declared" a cultural tourism site. Officials from the Peruvian government's Cusco-based National Institute of Culture (INC) met with Torres on Tuesday, according to Francisco Solís, an INC official.
"It is far too early to make any definitive judgments," Solís told National Geographic News. "We are going to dispatch a team to investigate."
Officials expect more details to emerge in the coming days, he said. Legend of Paititi Paititi is believed to have been located somewhere east of the Andes Mountains in the rain forest of southeastern Peru, southwestern Brazil, or northern Bolivia. In 1600 a missionary reported seeing a large "city of gold" in the region where Paititi is believed to have been built, according to archival records discovered by an Italian archaeologist in 2001. However, the location of the newfound site falls counter to where historical records indicate Paititi should be, Solís said. Officials were nonetheless intrigued by the possibilities, he added. The first task will be to determine if the newfound ruins are the work of the Inca or pre-Inca ethnic groups, Solís said. Gregory Deyermenjian, a U.S.-based psychologist and explorer who has led many expeditions to investigate the Paititi legend, said many people in the tourism-rich region of Cusco have embraced the legend as a business promotion. But he said the claims could have merit, as there are still many important sites to be found.
"It is a bit off the beaten path but still within the Inca's reach," Deyermenjian said. "I'm very interested to know more."
Daniel Gade, professor emeritus in geography at the University of Vermont, cautioned about jumping to conclusions.
"Paititi is frequently the first thing people mention when something like this is found," Gade said, adding that there are many ruins in the jungle regions of the area.
2020.01.04 23:33 dpsychbmy friend says subtle things that make me feel weird
[18F] I am currently a freshman in college and I have been friends with one of my distant cousins (lets name her "Alexa") since freshman highschool. i have never felt close to her or comfortable enough to tell her many of my secrets so when i was dating this boy, i sent her our pic bc she asked to see how he looked. I told her not to save the pic since my paretns are pretty strict about dating. A few months later i broke up with my bf. But my friend still had our picture together saved on her phone even though i told her directly that I dont like that she did that. I kept asking her to delete it but she would just ignore or laugh it off. I talked to a few of my close friends about this and they said that Alexa was probably keeping that pic to threaten me someday? Maybe use it in the future. As i mentioned, my parents are pretty strict about dating and same goes for her parents (since we're related) so she should understand why i keep asking her to delete that pic. I feel like she might send that pic to my parents some day if we ever have any argument or disagreement. Plus thats like the only thing she has on me that could get me in trouble. She smokes, drinks, plays with boys' emotions, and slept with a boy she hadn't even talked to for a week. I am by no means judging her but I feel like shes always trying to drag me down that road?? I have never been interested in smoking or drinking or wtv but she keeps trying to change me? she smokes weed and kept trying to convince me to smoke as well. I have nothing against weed but i personally just dont want to do it. and one time she joked about how she'll make me eat edibles without letting me know it has weed and she just started laughing. When i was in the talking phase with my bf(ex) she made fun of him for not doing anything sexual to me. My ex was a good man who respected boundaries and always asked for my consent. Alexa would always make fun of my ex saying that hes ugly and that i should just break up with him and find a better guy. Part of her hatred(?) toward my ex also came from that fact that he was hispanic. Both me and Alexa are east asian. She always had this (idk how to word it) dislike towards hispanic ppl? She would say things like "ew these hispanics are so ...." She always said some racist things but it was really lowkey and whenever i called her out for it she would be like "damn you only taking their side cos your bf is mexican"(my ex was columbian but wtv). She bashed me for not being out there. She would kinda reverse psychology me(?) and make it seem like I was wrong for not being out there sexually??? She said things like "why dont you wanna have sex with your bf?," or "youre very old fashioned and anti-feminist for being old fashioned." I tried to explain to her that not everyone is the same and that feminism is not about all women being "out there" but its about allowing women to choose what they wish to do with their body/sexuality. Like the things she says sounds "fake deep." Like she tries to sound like shes so progressive and stuff but then she still is very racist and discriminatory against most POC(even other asians). she also constanlty says this phrase: "Im a really nice person." She says it so much. especially when someone calls her out abt something. For example, she recently started dating this boy and i am also friends with this boy and he asks me for advice abt their relationship and shit but thats a diff story. Basically she ignored him the whole day and didnt pick up her phone. That day she lied to me and made me hang out with her and some tinder boy. I felt so weird bc i was kinda friends with her bf but i didnt know if this counted as cheating?? anyways the next day she lied and told her bf that she was just tired and slept the whole day. idk man im not trynna get involved but i feel bad for her bf cos he told me how much he likes her and stuff. she wasnt even interested in him in the first place. like in the begenning, she even told me "omg should i break his heart lol." theres more things abt her that just make me feel weird but it wont fit here. so my question is if i should cut her off or not and how should i do it. bc shes a very manipulaitve and narcissitic person. like she cant take a "no" for an answer and will keep bothering or convincing until i say 'yes' even if that means by lying to me. she still owes me like $20 which she hasnt paid even tho i asked her 3 times so im just waiting until i get my money back to cut her off lol
2019.12.24 20:05 MarkdownShadowBotRemoved comments/submissions for /u/ltrifone
Hi ltrifone, you're not shadowbanned, but 10 of your most recent 100 comments/submissions were removed. They may be removed automatically by spam filters and not necessarily by human moderators. Comment (1pts) in TwoXChromosomes, "Asian Women (+ WoC): How the f do I avoid guys with Asian...", (25 Dec 19):
OK. Someone educate me because I just don't get it. "be my first asian" guys are just as malignant as "I only date asian girls" So not being willing to date Asian girls at all makes one racist? OK,...
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You mentally retarded. It was literally just explained to you by 4 other posters.
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Jesus Christ. You are using James Bond as an example of women not getting a role in Hollywood? Bond movies have had a old female hag as 'M' for 20 years. The original Money-penny was old. Most Bond...
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What info could possibly be withheld? Here are the engineering documents. It has wall thickness V, diameter W, steel alloy X. The chemical composition of the oil is Y, and the flow parameters are...
Comment (1pts) in TwoXChromosomes, "I was really scared when my husband stopped on the side of...", (17 Dec 19):
Not war torn. Islamic. Sounds like she has been groomed from childhood to be afraid of people.
Comment (-9pts) in TwoXChromosomes, "I was really scared when my husband stopped on the side of...", (17 Dec 19):
I've always been taught that women need to be more suspicious of strangers than men, that you should never stop and help people
I am assuming you live in Afganistan or Iran or a similar place....
Comment (-3pts) in britishcolumbia, "British Columbians fight US billionaire for ‘right to...", (14 Dec 19):
This is the future of every Indian Reservation in BC once the land claims are complete. It is all going to get sold to billionaires. Just like Larry Ellison's place, Zuckerburg's place, and and...
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16 year old retard, at that. It ain't cool to bully the mentally ill.
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There is a /s in his fucking post FFS.
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2019.12.09 21:32 KmudametalWonderful Journey Pops in Fort Smith Arkansas
Better late than never getting this post up..... but here we go. A historical journey through Fort Smith Arkansas. This is me typing so you know it's going to turn into a Wall-Of-Text of massive proportions. A lot of history here, some of which may not be familiar. If you are interested in history, this will be a good post for you. If not, not so much. :) The Babymetal Wonderful Journey Pops arrived in Fort Smith in time for me to take them to Los Angeles to attend the Forum concert. The first time I took them out of the box was at the Hotel in Los Angeles. Being on the 5th floor with a view outside, I learned real quick, when there is a McDonald's outside your window, close the drapes. Otherwise Moa Pop is going to become fixated and distracted. Because Moa Pop is still underage, they stayed in the hotel room the night of the pre-party, where a group of Babymetal fans took over a local Bar, leaving the locals wondering what just happened. The night of the concert, they were able to attend the after party. Where we took over both the front and the back room of the bar. The Pops themselves took photos with some well-known Super fans from across the Atlantic and from across the Pacific. There were a ton of folks taking a lot of photos of the Pops themselves and of themselves with the Pops, but those images have not made it back to us. If you got any, please post them. The Pops witnessed hundreds of fans and hundreds of fans got to see them. After a good time being had by all, it was time to return to Fort Smith Arkansas. Most people have never heard of Fort Smith but it holds a very distinct place in American History during the 18th century as the last bastion of law and order before entering the Indian Territory to the west. It is also used in many movies pertaining to the "old west". It was Rooster Cogburn's (John Wayne's) home base in True Grit.). The Clint Eastwood movie Hang 'em High is loosely based upon the 'hanging judge" - Judge Isaac Parker, who was based out of Fort Smith. When you see old west movies mentioning "Federal Marshals", those Marshals were based out of Fort Smith Arkansas. The man in charge of all of this was Judge Isaac Parker, aka “The Hanging Judge”. My initial plans were to take the Wonderful Journey Funko Pops up into God's Country in the Ozark Mountains. Canoeing on the Buffalo River and small-mouth fishing on Crooked Creek. But alas, the time of year they arrived was too late in the season (too cold) to be putting Kayaks in on the rivers, not to mention the rivers and streams were all flooded because of record rainfall. So we were left to investigate the history of Fort Smith. They started by visiting a Mayan Doll found in an Arkansas cave. How the Mayan figurine arrived in an Arkansas Cave is a mystery. Either the Mayan influence made it much further North than is commonly accepted or a Mayan slave brought by the Spanish placed it there. Regardless, as was noted, there is an odd similarity here.. :). While the Mayan figure is a mystery, the Plains Indians and their historical ancestors from the Clovis Culture to the Mound Builders, are not, albeit most of that history has been destroyed at the alter of "Manifest Destiny". How many are aware that North America had cultures that built pyramids rivaling the Mayans, had writing, sophisticated art, metallurgy skills, advanced culture, trade networks that covered North America and even into Central America, and cities as large (if not larger) than anything in Europe? One of the largest pre-Columbian "Mound Builder" societies were the Toltec Culture, in Central Arkansas. What most of us think of as American Indians, the Warrior Horse Cultures of the Plains, only accounts for 200 years of Native American history and is exclusively post-columbian. There are 16,000+ years of pre-columbian history, most records of which were intentionally destroyed by Manifest Destiny policies. Here, the Funko Pops pose with stone tools from these eras. The Pops came across many historical objects. A Civil War Confederate Uniform and equipment. A Civil War Cannon. They studied up on female outlaws from the old west, having their photo taken with a saddle belonging to Belle Star . They spent considerable time trying to determine if Bella looked as mean as her reputation. They could not resist the opportunity to hop aboard an old 18th century buckboard wagon, as well as investigate the printing press that printed Fort Smith newspapers in the Judge Isaac Parker days. They also had an opportunity to see the furnishings from Judge Isaac Parker's Courtroom.. They finished up this leg of the trip by posing with a Civil War era fire engine where they were joined by Madimetal.. Of course, you can't visit America and not check out the car that spawned the automotive revolution. The Ford Model T.. After deciding they were not going to get the latest Star Wars video game on the RCA Victor TV, the journey extended outdoors, where they visited the actual fort that gave Fort Smith its name. All that is left of that fort are the foundational walls. Here, the Funko Pops pose on the wall of the surgeon's quarters, which was also the surgery room. If those walls could talk, I'm sure they would be screaming in pain as they witnessed everything from the Indian Wars to the Civil War. Next stop was Judge Isaac Parker's Courthouse and Jail.. Along the way they hopped aboard an 18th Century Paddy Wagon.. Federal Marshall's based out of Fort Smith handled law enforcement for all of the Indian Territory. The Indian Territory consisted of approximately 60,000 Native American's who were forcibly relocated from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States to the "Indian Territory" (now Oklahoma). Between 1830 and 1850, the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, and Cherokee people were relocated to the Indian Territories. Between 15,000 and 25,000 died in route from exposure, disease, and starvation. This journey is known as "The Trail Of Tears".. When driving highways and back roads in the Southeastern United States, you will frequently come across sign markers commemorating "The Trail of Tears". While there is no photo (I considered the moment somber enough not to interrupt it with photos as others were present), the Funko Pops watched a National Parks Service video inside a theater in the Courthouse detailing the Trail of Tears. All criminals were brought from the Indian Territory to Fort Smith in front of Judge Isaac Parker. Judge Parker tried 13,490 cases. In more than 8,500 of these cases, the defendant either pleaded guilty or was convicted at trial. He sentenced 160 people to death; 79 of them were executed by hanging. The Gallows could hang 5 at a time.. I'm not exactly sure why, but the Funko Pops decided it was necessary to get a photo....., although I did manage to prevent them from climbing up to the hanging platform itself. Su Pop apparently confused the gallows with a stage (it does have trap doors, after all) and instead of being crucified, this time she would be hung. Once inside the Courthouse, after watching the movie on 'The Trail Of Tears", the Pops checked out what it was like to be in an 18th century jail and had their photo taken with a portrait of Judge Isaac Parker. Before his days as a judge, Isaac Parker was U.S. Congressman, where he worked to enfranchise women (allow them to hold public office) and sponsored bills to allow for fair treatment of Indians inside the Indian Territory. The Pops were able to snag a photo with Congressman Isaac Parker's Congressional desk. They were also able to see the firearms and stories of several infamous outlaws. Among them "Ned Christie" (yes, movie fans, that is an actual historical character) along with artifacts associated with Cherokee Bill, including the Noose used to hang him after he killed Guard Larry Keating in an attempted escape. Also on display, artifacts from the man who actually performed the executions (hangings). Judge Isaac Parker sentenced men to hang. The man who actually did all the hanging (the "hangman") was named George Meledon. George apparently never charged for his execution services. Rather, he was paid to be the Night Guard at the jail, where he managed to wound or kill 5 additional men attempting to escape. George hung 79 people and shot 5 more. I wonder what that conversation at the Pearly Gates was like. Unfortunately, while on their tour of Fort Smith history, Moa Pop experienced a catastrophic accident. She lost her head (for the second time) and one of her pigtails. She was rushed to the Mercy Hospital Emergency Room, where emergency surgery was performed to reattach her head and, most importantly, reattach her Pigtail. We all know what happens when their hair style changes. It was critical we got the Pigtail reattached properly in order to prevent catastrophic meltdown. After successful surgery and X-Rays to confirm all was well, the Funko Pops ran into an old friend on the way out of the building. The following day, I went to work leaving the Funko Pops in a backpack in the backseat. I had bought them fishing poles, intending to take them up into the Ozark Mountain's to do some smallmouth fishing, but the weather simply was not permitting. However, when I came out of the office to go to lunch, I found the Funko's had broken out (I suspect Moa Pop was behind it all) and had decided to try their hand at fishing anyway.. I took a few photos, sending them to facilities management, with the suggestion they may want to fix those potholes in the parking lot they said "are not that bad"... because some little gnome like creatures had decided to use them as fishing holes. Feeling sorry for the Funko Pops... it was obvious they wanted to put their fishing poles to use, my wife took them down to the Arkansas River), Unfortunately, because of the record rainfall, they could not get close enough to the river to do any fishing. Denied again.. Fishing just was not in the cards. Memorial Day happened to fall in the same week. In recognition of Memorial Day, as a reminder of the ramifications resulting from a failure to maintain peace, the Funko Pop's visited the National Cemetery in Fort Smith. This cemetery houses the remains of over 13,000 soldiers that have fallen from the Civil War (both Confederate and Union) to the current date. Basically, any direction you look the view is nothing but row after row after row of tombstones. (note - the pavillion to the left in this photo is where the funerals are held, people unfortunately continue to be buried here)..... and more tombstones... and yet more tombstones. My unscientific calculations are that about 75% of these graves are from WWII. The Funko Pops started the day at the flag post that is at the entrance of the cemetery. They then visited a few Civil War graves of Union soldiers from the 1st Arkansas Calvary, as well as one of the graves from an unknown solider from WWII. After showing their respects to fallen soldiers, it was time to get down to some Fort Smith home cooking. You think Fort Smith.... Arkansas... must be talking about some good ole' Southern Cooking but nope, we're talking about Vietnamese Pho.. Following the end of the Vietnam War, many Vietnamese loyal to South Vietnam and the United States fled the country by boat and ship to avoid execution and persecution at the hands of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese. This mass migration lasted for many years and the people involved were refereed to as "Vietnamese boat people.". In total, approximately 2,000,000 Vietnamese fled Vietnam as the North took over the South. My brother was in the Navy at the time, stationed aboard the USS Kitty Hawk. In 1979 the Kitty Hawk , as part of Carrier Air Wing 15, was redirected to the oceans off of Vietnam to search for and rescue "Boat People". The Boat people rescued during this operation were sent to Fort Chaffee in Fort Smith. Many of these immigrants stayed in the area, resulting in the population of Fort Smith having an abnormally high percentage of Vietnamese per capita. As a result, we have some of the best Vietnamese food available in the U.S.... to the extent that, the taste of Fort Smith is "Vietnamese". Side note. For those for whom the name "Fort Chaffee" rings a bell, at one time it was the largest Army base in the continental United States. It is famous because it's where Elvis attended basic training and got his hair cut. Today, that Barber shop is a museum. Elvis fans still travel to Fort Smith to see it. Much like we travel to where Su or Yui ate. Finally, Madimetal and Kmudametal say goodbye, from Arkansas.
2019.11.29 09:07 msinglynx1How did you find SANE housemates?
No doubt everyone here has heard some variation of a rental nightmare, so I'm gonna try and keep it short. I've been living overseas for most of the past decade and do not have a credit history (just started it and it is slowly but surely moving through the 500's up from my previous rating of 000! It really exists!) or any debt. Unfortunately the lack of debt (not even student loans) made it pretty much impossible to get any kind of credit card. I've dealt with that so moving on: I do not have a cosigner. My family lives in Puerto Rico and they definitely do not make enough to qualify for those ridiculous 80x the rent requirements. My income is pretty steady and I can spend up to around $1k a month. My problem is I cant find safe, stable, fair housing due to my credit issue. The first room I rented after coming here was a bit rushed, because the friend I was staying with is a bit flighty and she didnt plan her moving out date with her landlord, so the month long search time suddenly turned into two days, causing me to miss work. I found a place in a horrible area of Brooklyn, over an hour commute, but more importantly, it seemed comfortable and the room was large and pet friendly. I moved in and found the situation pretty wierd. The previous resident "disappeared" leaving all of his belongings, including high end sneakers and furniture. I figured he was in jail but within 3 weeks the main roommate had started breaking into my room while I was at work, and then locking my female cat into his bathroom, drawers in his room, in his closet and pretending to be asleep with his door locked while she yowled trying to get out. I would shut my cats in my room and he would let them out so he could trap them in his room like that. Besides that there was some other sketchy behavior that made me wonder if something else happened with the previous roommate. There was also a super racist and sexist downstairs neighbor from India who kept harassing me with creepy comments for being a woman living with men. After that I moved in with a Columbian family. The room was tiiiny and I was not allowed to use the living room, have guests and they barely tolerated it if I cooked. Like I couldnt even toast a cheese sandwich without them opening the door and claiming that it smelled, but it was safe enough to live through the winter. There was only 1 bus nearby that led to the subway so the commute was like 80 mins+ and I ended up having to start working in Astoria for way less pay because it was more accessible. When summer arrived they suddenly started leaving all the doors and windows open and letting my cats out despite constantly requesting that they let me know to collect them. This would happen even in the middle of the freaking night, so my choice was keep two very angry and bored cats in an 8'x7' room, or let them run around a bit and risk getting out. I am also Latina and would enjoy living with other latinos, but every single ad I have seen has been a similar set up where they intend to charge market rate for a tiny room and then wont let you drink alcohol or have guests, watch tv in the living room or keep food/cook in the kitchen. When I've asked about it I've gotten super bitchy comments about how I'm "renting a room". Currently I'm in a place in the Bronx, $800, it is section 8 housing that actually rents for $1500 for the whole 3br apartment. It has no living room and my room is again, ridiculously tiny but I can keep my cat. My housemate is one Italian asshole who is suuuper freaking racist but doesnt know he's racist (everything is the immigrants fault hurpderp), has 2 massive, ancient dogs he constantly screams at, is constantly trying to pull some scam like the housing, which he intends to eventually let him live there rent free. He previously had a labor job then tried to fake an injury and get workmans comp, which was denied. He throws full on tantrums like a toddler shouting shit like "I dont like youuuu". I'n the few months I've been here he tried to start a fight with the crackhead downstairs for playing his music too loud during the DAY. I had to bodily separate him from the other guy and remind him 311 exists. After that there was an incident in which the police came to the door looking for the BF of the official renter (our landlady) and he tried to pull the white boy card and almost got the shit beat out of him at 7 in the morning (turns out that BF left the state but is currently happily blackmailing and threatening this jackass). This guy claims to be super OCD about cleaning but is actually just one of those hard core control freaks who wants to touch everyones shit. He went through my cabinet and reorganized it by hieght, then threw a tantrum when I couldnt reach anything and asked him to get me down the stuff he had hidden. He threw out super expensive ingredients I had bought in China and can not get here in the US because he didnt like how I had them packaged to avoid the smell seeping out. He even throws out my freaking vegetables because HE doesnt like to eat them. -_- The limit came a few weeks back. I had a bad tooth infection that required surgery and antibiotics. As any person who actually knows women would know, antibiotics play a nasty number on our lady parts. This mofo threw out and moved my self care supplies (nothing gross or dirty). I asked him to stop touching any of my stuff and to ask if he wanted to throw anything away. This passive aggressive jackass was so enraged at not being allowed to freely touch my stuff he tried to kick me out the same day! I had to remind him that NYC has laws and that I was absolutely fine calling the cops on him for being a bully. Since then he had been harassing me constantly and making up shit about me to our other roommate. That stopped when I came out and told the other guy what was happening and the moron had to come out and admit he was lying about a bunch of shit, but before then the other roommate exposed himself as a super sexist moron who seems somehow under the impression that I had never met a man before in my life, and therefore did not understand how to communicate with this strange foreign species. He did not apologize for accusing me of moving and stealing his belongings once the psycho admitted that it was him being a control freak. At that point he said "well he's been under a lot of stress" and decided those things didnt really bother him THAAAT much. Anyway, key point is that the psycho has agreed to stop harassing me until I move as the other idiot helped him realize that I was legally in my rights to call the cops at any time and would happily get them all evicted for fraud if he didnt leave me alone. So, obviously, I'm in the market for a new living situation. and this time I want to take the time to find one where the people are not creepy, passive aggressive bullies, racist or asshole families. Is it really that hard to just find a couple of nice, reliable, stable, sane roommates? What sites did you use to find your rental situation? How much did you have to pay if you also had no credit? How do you avoid wierdos and creepers? Are all men in this city insane? Where can I find some cool nerdy ladies to live with? Is it really impossible to find something like a couple of roommates who enjoy living togethespending time together sometimes, who share expenses for household items and also allow pets? What are some good neighborhoods for me to check out if I want a room for like $700-1000 in an apartment that allows pets and also HAS AN ACTUAL LIVING ROOM(and walking distance to a subway station)!!!? Seriously, wtf is the deal with the lack of living rooms?!
2019.10.14 10:22 heidieatpizza[22f] bringing up cheating [32m]
this whole situation is kind of a mess. i’ve [22f] been with my boyfriend [32m] for about 2 and a half years now. the last couple months (at least) have been really rough. this isn’t directly related to the situation, but this time last year i had an abortion. it was kind of traumatic for me. i now have an IUD (birth control implant) which has terrible side effects. my hormones are raging, i cry at the drop of a pin, and i’m constantly feeling nauseous and weak. i haven’t felt quite like myself for the past year, and it’s taken me that long to realize why. (i had previously thought maybe it was my medication, so i changed that, which was a long process, to no avail.) anyway i have an appointment tuesday to switch to a birth control with (hopefully) less side effects. to sum things up: i have been an emotional and physical wreck for the past year and it’s taken a toll on my relationship. i have pushed my boyfriend away by neglecting his needs physically and emotionally. i put a lot of blame on my boyfriend for the issues i was having. i said a lot of hurtful things, and convinced myself i was unhappy with him and our relationship. i told him this often, and it slowly broke him down. my boyfriend and i live together in my house, but i started staying at my parent’s house beginning of october because we both wanted space and agreed it would be good to have some breathing room. i stayed there and didn’t see him for a little over a week. we would still text every day, saying how much we missed and loved each other. when i returned home, things felt off. i can’t really explain it but i just knew something had changed. that night while he was sleeping, his phone lit up with a text from an unsaved number. it was a response to a conversation that had been deleted. i know that what i did next was wrong and an invasion of his privacy, but my internal alarms were buzzing that something was up and i acted on it. i went on his phone and looked at his App purchase history. he downloaded “Text Burner Texting” September 23rd. i thought that was strange so i kept looking. found he had spent $20 on Tinder on September 6th, $5 on Tinder on September 8th, $50 on Tinder on September 29th, $70 on Tinder on September 30th, $5 on Tinder on October 5th, and then a $5 pending Tinder charge for that same day. he also downloaded a language translation app that i thought was odd (comes back up later). i will add that money is kind of tight for us right now, so i was shocked that he had spent over $150 on Tinder in a month. i ended up scrolling all the way back to April of this year and found a $20 “automatic renewal” Tinder charge. this is when i went full on “crazy girlfriend” mode. i downloaded the tinder app and logged in with his phone number. his profile came up, with photos of him, a bio, everything. he had “seeking ____”, his height, his interests, etc. he had 70 matches and 50 ongoing message conversations. his most recent conversation at that time had happened just hours before, while we were cuddling in bed together. (i took screenshots of all of this which is how i have all of this specific information, i didn’t just somehow memorize all of this lol). i read a few of his conversations where he said things like “you’re so gorgeous”, “can i get you pregnant”, “i need someone to carry my babies”, giving out his phone number, saying “if i’m not balls deep in you by later tonight then i’ll be shocked”. he was having a few conversations with women in other countries, speaking other languages (hence the earlier translation app), saying he “wants a columbian wife.” a few conversations mentioned adding them on something called “what’s app”. i realized that was an app, so i downloaded it. a few old conversations were restored. the names of the people he was talking to were of people he worked with, which i thought was strange. i realized he had saved their numbers in his phone under fake names like “John - Work”, but the profile pictures were girls, and the conversations were flirty. i didn’t read too many of those conversations, but went to his contacts and found the ones from WhatsApp to see what the phone numbers were. sure enough, the area codes weren’t local. these were some of the girls from outside the country. (sorry this is kind of hard to explain but hopefully it’s making sense so far.) he basically hid these girl’s numbers as coworkers but WhatsApp exposed him because it synced up the numbers with their profiles. at this point i was overwhelmed, so i went outside for some air. it was pretty late at night so i went out the back door which i rarely do. i stumbled upon 2 huge (empty) crates of beer. my boyfriend has been sober for about a year and a half now. we had a ROUGH past of him and alcohol that ended him in jail multiple times. it almost broke our relationship, and he had to go to AA and a support group for it for awhile. i was so heartbroken to find the empty bottles because he was obviously trying to hide them. i went inside, left him his phone (he was still asleep), and slept in the guest room. that morning, he came and woke me up as he was getting ready for work. he asked me what i was doing in the guest room. all i said was “i found your tinder”. he didn’t say anything, and went to work for the day. i don’t remember exactly what happened that day but we texted briefly. it went like this (copy/pasted): him: “not going to be apologetic when you’ve treated me like garbage for the past month and a half. when i blamed the birth control, you just said NOPE NOT THE BIRTH CONTROL JUST DONT LIKE YOU.” *i didn’t respond, hours pass him: “but i do love you, the past two months have been horrible for me emotionally when i’ve felt worthless because i don’t make enough money or i don’t do enough” *i told him to find somewhere else to live, and we argued for a bit about him moving out. he didn’t come home that night. me: “sunday night i came home from my mom’s. we ate pizza and cuddled in bed. you told me you missed me and loved me. meanwhile you were sending messages to other women asking for sex. i agree the last few months have been hell, but not ONCE have i EVER reached out to other people like that.” him; “i love you too, i didn’t/never wanted to cheat on you, but everything has taken emotional tolls on me since we got back from [trip we took in september] and i just can’t take constant abuse emotionally when i’m doing the best i can in life within my limits, it makes me feel completely unwanted and that no matter what i do, all you care about is money at the end of the day and i’ll never be that for you so why waste your time.” i started asking questions and he just kept saying “you’re not talking ur interrogating”. me: “i can’t help but have lots of questions. you had hidden phone numbers in your contacts, a burner app, and whatsapp. you even downloaded a translate app to speak to colombian women. i’m hurt and you won’t talk to me.” him: “i wanted to feel wanted, instead of coming home from work every day feeling like i was shit” me: “then break up with me. don’t hold me and tell me you missed me and then message someone else later. and now you’ve gone back to drinking. what you did was cheating and you need to understand that.” him: “i didn’t cheat on you and i feel terrible. thank you for saying you wanted to talk when you just wanted to attack me and scold me”. we continued to argue for a bit over text, but i realized it was going nowhere so i tried to sleep. around 1 am, i couldn’t sleep, and thought fuck this, i’m going to go find him and bring him home so we can work this out in the morning. i knew he had been drinking and might’ve passed out somewhere like he has in the past. i was still angry but wanted to know he was safe. i drove around town for about an hour, looking for our car. i finally found it parked at a motel. he had left the car unlocked with an extra room key sitting right on the center console. long story short, i found him passed out drunk in his room. he had ~$300 cash in his wallet (unusual) and a case of half drunken booze. i sat there and just stared at him for awhile not really knowing what to do. i debated between just taking my house key off his ring and leaving him forever, or waking him up and bringing him home. that’s when his phone lit up. a notification from “Grinder”. i couldn’t help myself and looked at his phone. he had the same “tinder” going, along with “Plenty of fish”, “Grinder”, “FetLife”, and probably more but i can’t remember. i looked through a few of the apps and their conversations. he had a really detailed Plenty of Fish profile filled out, and at least 30 match conversations going. Grinder was the same, but he was also sending pictures of his genitals to a few people. in one of the conversations on the apps he said he’d pay someone $200 to come have sex with him (why i suspect he had so much cash). i was really overwhelmed and it’s all kind of a blur now. i just remember he was giving out his phone number and nudes left and right. i also noticed he had downloaded the “Firefox” app, which was odd. i clicked on it, where he had a gmail account logged in I had never seen before. the emails were all from dating sites like tinder, plenty of fish, grinder, fetlife, and a snapchat account. the first email i could find was from April of this year (coincidentally the same time Tinder auto renewal was charged). It came from a site i’d never heard of called “TS Dating”. it was obvious emails had been deleted so i have no idea how far back they really went. he also had private message notification emails coming in in April for FetLife, and a “welcome to snapchat!” email that same time. (he doesn’t use snapchat, or so i thought). i woke him up, (didn’t say anything about what was on his phone,) we cried together a bit, and went home. all of this happened wednesday and it is now sunday. we haven’t really talked about anything that went down. he knows i know about everything (or at least what i hope was everything). he told me he has since deleted all of the accounts, but that’s pretty much it. the other night i told him i want to talk about everything that happened, but we still didn’t. how do i bring up all of this, in a way that won’t make him feel attacked? is this something that needs the mediation of a counselor? i know this entire situation is batshit insane and there is a lot to unpack. i don’t want to just drop this. things have been bad for the past couple months, but i don’t remember it going all the way back to April (6 months ago). he hasn’t drank since that night and things have been going.... better. i have decided to forgive him and work on this relationship. i don’t want this to be something that just doesn’t get talked about, and swept under the rug. i have so many questions and concerns and i’m still really hurt and need answers to move on and begin healing. this has been the lowest point in our relationship and i want our next moves to lift us up from this point and make us stronger. i don’t know how to recover from ongoing “non physical” cheating. would it helpful to reinstall the apps and i ask him questions about why he said certain things? or log into the email account and have him explain why he signed up for what? i feel like there’s so much to unpack, literally months of secrets and lies, and i don’t want it to just be explained away with an “i’m sorry, it won’t happen again”. i also don’t want to add fuel to this fire by saying the wrong thing. thanks in advance to anyone who managed to get through this wall of text.
2019.08.12 22:59 Panthe0nFaeTale of Cyrus (3): What Fresh Fuckery is This!?
Hello, lunar herd and Moonhorse! I’m back with more tales of Cyrus and even some of BatShit herself. I’m never sure whose story to start with but today I think we're going to start with BatShit today and work our way to Cyrus These are some of the more cringy stories I’m providing for your entertainment and education today so I hope you enjoy. So, I’ve spent time living in my car when having issues with my own family. So in a way, I have been homeless. It’s awful but an eye-opening experience. Anyway, BatShit was a nosy old bitch so when I would come over, she would take the dog for a “walk” to the front yard so she could look into my car and see what was going on in there. (Yeah, I don’t know either. Probably was expecting to find my meth lab in there along with 100 kilos of cocaine that came with my Columbian drug lord in my back seat. Oh can’t forget my hooker that I not only hired but probably stuffed into the trunk like the serial killing, drug dealing, baby boy stealing whore that I am.) I had watched her do this a 100 times at least. I usually had soda cans and a pillow and blanket in there honestly so I assumed that it wasn’t that bad since she never said anything about it. Well, you know what they say about assuming. I got this lovely little conversation once. BatShit: So I was out walking the dog like I normally do, since no one else does around here, [I love how she says this even though she won't teach either of her sons' responsibility] and I happened to see your car door was open and I shut it for you. Me: Oh. Thank you BatShit: Yes, you really need to clean that car out though. It looks like a homeless person lives out in front of my house. I’ve worked so hard to keep this house looking nice, the least you could do is keep that filth out of my driveway. It’s embarrassing. Me: Ah BatShit: I wanted to say something to you while Cyrus was out that way you didn’t feel embarrassed. Me: Thanks, Mrs. BatShit. I’ll get that cleaned up right away. I didn’t. In fact, I showed up the next day with a toaster and microwave in my passenger seat, stacked on top of each other and a slice of pizza on a napkin laying beside them. Just for her of course. Never heard a word about it again. Now, you should see this woman when someone gets sick. She treats them like they did it on purpose just to piss her off and she takes it out whoever is sick. Just so happens I was the one who was sick. I had a stuffy head and I wasn’t planning on staying long. I had gone over to Cyrus’s house to drop off Christmas presents and then my plan was to leave and go home and rest. BatShit: Aww, honey. Why don’t I have Cyrus blow up the air mattress and you can stay the night so you don’t have to drive home so sick? Me: My house is only a little bit away. I should be alright. BatShit: You sure? I was honestly floored. I couldn’t believe such a kind gesture came from her. So, I said yes and with great amounts of bitching, my ex the Oedipus complex himself, got me out the mattress and a few blankets while his mother made me tea. It was so sweet I could have cried. So with goodnights and lots of medication and tissues, I fell asleep fast. And I would have kept sleeping well except I was woken up at 7 am to the mattress deflating. At first, I thought I busted the mattress and that it was just going to be one more strike against me. That was until I stood up to stretch and I watched BatShit come out of nowhere with gloves and a mask. I watched as she took the blankets and pillow down to the washroom and wipe down the mattress with a disinfectant wipe. Ok, whatever. It’s kinda weird to be like that but I just shook my head and began to walk to the bathroom. BatShit: No, don’t go in there. You’re sick. Me: ...What? BatShit: (still wearing her gloves and a mask, hands me my stuff) I need you to get out of here. You’re sick and I don’t want my family sick before the holidays. Just go home, I have to disinfect the house before I can make them breakfast. I’ll tell Cyrus you left. Me: Yeah, you do that... I had been awake for less than 2 minutes and I was being kicked out in my PJs and in desperate need to use the bathroom. So I drove home, half awake and in a nightgown Oh, and let’s not forget sick. Needless to say, that was the last time I ever spent the night over at Cyrus’s home. Ah, now for the NiceGuy himself. Let’s talk about money, or rather Cyrus and his value of money in his life. As I said in my last story, Cyrus got a job that paid $24/hour doing almost absolutely nothing. Well, he even had more than the average working person because he never had any bills to pay. Phone? Dad paid for it. Car? Supposedly Cyrus’s even though it was in his father’s name, as was the insurance, which was paid by his father. Cyrus had no idea what a bill was or how to pay for it. So when I was making only 11/hr at my job, I was paying for auto insurance, paying off my car, paying my credit card bill, my phone, my rent, gas for my car, etc. You know, I was being an adult. Well, Cyrus’s and my anniversary was coming up along with Valentine’s day and I wasn’t doing great in the funds department. So I got creative and looked around for some cute MEANINGFUL gifts. I got him a keychain engraved with our anniversary date on it with a little message on it and commissioned a paper rose made with pages of his favorite comic. I gave these things to him along with a card, damn proud of myself and excited to see how he would react. I should have known better after the baking incident. I watched the light die in his eyes as he looked at his gifts. Cyrus: That’s it? (Insert my immediate thought to the first Harry Potter when Dudely Dursly freaked out about not having enough presents) Me:...Is that really all you have to say to me? Cyrus: Thanks, I guess. Didn’t you even make me any sweets for Valentine’s day? My mom usually does. Me: I didn’t have the money, Cyrus. I thought I already told you that. Cyrus: Why not? Didn’t you save any up? You should try doing what I do and put half of your paycheck back into savings and- I’ve never been so close to having a body stuffed into the trunk of my car in my life. (Don’t worry, not enough room with the hooker in there, lol) BUT WAIT, THERE’S MORE! So after my recent defeat with Valentine’s day and my anniversary, I worked all the overtime hours I could to save up money for something really special for his birthday. Something I knew he would love. Cyrus was crazy about Viking stuff. The history, the aesthetic all of it. So what would be better than a handmade ax, with engraving on the metal and handle? (With a protective rubber cap for the sharp blade.) Yeah, that’s right. Nothing. I spent $350 on this thing. It was beautiful and the seller did an amazing job. And not surprisingly, Cyrus loved it. I thought I finally won a round. However, I kept telling him he needed to buy a stand or mount for it. And you think he would have with all the “money he saved up”. No. About 10 months later, I was helping him move furniture in his room and I found it wedged between sofa cushions, covered in dust and dirt. I cried. I felt so hurt. The thought didn’t matter, neither did the hard work I put into getting it. It was worth just the same to him as the half-eaten cookie I found beside it. So we come to the last and cringiest tale of this post. I'm putting this here for those of you who don’t want to hear anything sexual. It’s not violent just kind of jaw-dropping and even a bit funny. But it’s gonna be a tad graphic. So escape now while you can. Cyrus could only get off being told that he had a big cock when in reality it wasn’t. But his insecurity with his penis didn’t stem from the size completely. You see, It wasn’t until towards the end that I found out Cyrus was a racist. His ex left him and started dating an African American man and his only thought was that the reason she left him was that his penis wasn’t as big as a black man’s. Not for any other reason, of course... Though being sexual with Cyrus would be enough to make any girl or man run screaming away. First, Cyrus only seemed to like me from the tits up. Apparently, who needs a pussy when you have a perfectly good mouth? He never returned the favor either. I had to actually ask him to touch me and this was his brilliant response. Cyrus: Why do I need to? You and I both know women don’t have orgasms. Yep, he was serious too. Second, Cyrus watched way way wayyyyy too much porn and would jerk that little man way too hard and way too tightly. This gave him performance problems which he blamed me for. I needed to lose weight, wear more makeup, wear less makeup, wear lingerie, talk dirty to him (which for him was saying the same sentence over and over again for 45 minutes while jerked himself) Third, he bought himself a fleshlight, hoping it would “help me like your vagina more”. Yep, we tried having sex one time, and he couldn’t keep hard because he didn’t like the condom (which for me was nonnegotiable) so his brilliant idea was to buy a fleshlight for himself to that he could have sex with me… God damn genius, I tell you. Ahh, I bet you’re waiting for the break up aren't you? That will be next. And I promise it’s good. Anyway, thank you for the support and I hope you all have a great day! Thank you for the reads and getting this out there.
2019.07.23 20:29 GaBeRockKingOur Liberties We Prize And Our Rights We Will Maintain [Part 1]
Authors note: I've taken some liberties with history, and chosen to overtly ignore the background blurbs on Iowa, Platte, and house Rodman of the Quad Cities from the Wiki. I've also taken the chance to expand on the founding of New Rome and the nature of the pre-Saint-louis papacy with non-wiki information. Also, if the fan fork developers read any of this, please, for the love of all that is holy, rename the duchy of Iowa. It gets extraordinarily confusing when you can hold the kingdom of Iowa and its de jure capital of des moines, while also having an independent realm (cuz of dumb vassals) called Iowa. Also, this subreddits CSS prevents the use of hashtag section headers
A Brief List of Iowa's Dynasties and Governments
Emergency Rule (Department of Transportation)
House of Branstad-Grassley/First Kingdom of Iowa
House of Williams/Second Kingdom of Iowa
House of Rodman/Third Kingdom of Iowa/Kingdom of Iowa-Platte/Empire of Grangeland
House of Rodman/Third Kingdom of Iowa/Empire of the Heartland
House of EllisdaughteFourth Kingdom of Iowa/First Queendom of Iowa
House of Branstad-Grassley/A.K.A House of the pretende Fifth Kingdom of Iowa
The dynasty which is struck from history/Sixth Kingdom of Iowa/Empire of Transmississipiania
The Decades of Strife
House of Greysnow/Seventh Kingdom of Iowa
From the primer Our Liberties We Prize and Our Rights We Will Maintain, commissioned in 2662 by Queen Jellia of Iowa for the education of the studious children of Moingona, and especially those children who call Dowling Orphanage their home.
Over its long history, Iowa has stayed largely the same size and approximately the same shape. To those of learning, this is nothing short of astounding, because tn the period between the Event and the modern day, Iowa has experienced seven dynasties, two republics, three empires, and a dictatorship, without ever being truly sundered. Most regions suffer from fragmentary and poorly preserved knowledge of the times surrounding the event, and the two centuries following it. The midwest, however, has been an uninterrupted bastion of civilization and culture. Even as the coastal regions collapsed, we lived much the same lives as always, and took care to preserve all manner of historically valuable items. Even when Aimes was sacked by the forces of the king-without-epithet and the vast archives of the Cyclonic University was put to the torch, scholars risked their lives to save tens of thousands of works, some of which dated to centuries before the Event. So, perhaps ironically, the problem with record keeping in the midwest is that we have an overabundance of information. The royal archives in Des Moines once more hold hundreds of thousands of works, and the papal archives in St. Louis reportedly hold millions. But many of these works contradict each other, and some proportion are known to be outright fabrications, written to entertain rather than inform. Combined with the bizarre decline of the written word in the decades preceding the event, the difficulty of understanding ancient dialects, and the tendency of our predecessors to use a stylistic literary device known as “sarcasm,” our understanding of the Event and pre-event life is likely just as inaccurate as everyone else's. However, we have had significantly more luck with historical documentation The midwestern tendency towards virtuous honesty and against sinful exaggeration has left us a reliable and generally complete view of the history of Iowa both before and after the event. The aim of this primer is to provide a condensed version of some of the most important events in the history of Iowa, so that its readers can understand the rich, glorious history of our kingdom and its people. ~oOo~ Before anything else, The author wishes to inform the reader of what we have confirmed about pre-Event Iowa from sources considered to be highly reliable. Iowa first comes into the historical record in the early days of the great American Empire, as part of the vast parcel of land Emperor Napoleon sold to President-Emperor Washington. As the name of our capital city indicates, Iowa was a land of Des Moines-- “The Monks” in Old French. Staunch catholic men, who pledged fealty to the protestant American Empire with a threat-- “Our Liberties We Prize and our Rights We Will Maintain.” And while these monks were soon inundated by feeble minded protestants, they nevertheless instilled the seed of catholicism, which bloomed into the modern, catholic Iowa in the centuries following the Event. We know that the Mississippi and Missouri rivers are the natural eastern and western borders of Iowa, with the exception of those lands in the Quad Cities which are historically ours and will eventually be ours again. And so when congress undertook to draw Iowa on a map, these were easy borders to establish. So too was our northern border easy to distinguish-- Iowa was to encompass the northern reaches of where it was reasonable to grow corn. (Which is why today, we no longer claim a northern border that is straight; like how rivers change their course, and we change our borders with the rivers, so to does the area where corn grows easily. Without the weather manipulating archtools of the ancient Americans, growing areas can no longer be delimited by straight lines.) Our southern border was more troublesome, however, as corn grows well across much of the Mississippi river. The details grow unclear at this part of the tale, but we know that Iowa fought the “Honey War” against the ancient state of Missouri. Except for the fact that we won, and that our victory expanded our southern border, he details of this ancient conflict are lost to time, and even the name remains a mystery. (One popular theory is that we expanded our southern border to the maximal area where it was impossible for beekeepers to ply their trade. Another popular theory says it was named after the ferocity of Iowa’s soldiers, who “ignored the impotent stings of Missouri's soldiers, and fought like bears seeking honey.” Afterwards, we fought on the side of the Union in the Civil War, and sacrificed so many of our native sons the grey crosses of their gravestones are still easy to find in our cemeteries today. Such was our rivalry with the states of the Old Confederacy that we still fear and despise the Holy Columbian Confederacy today. The might of our military and the wisdom of our people gave us pride of place when it came time to select the President-Emperors of the American Empire, and we became the first stop all would-be President-Emperors paid homage to when they went on their election pilgrimages. This ancient tradition is why each king of Iowa boasts the epithet “first in the nation,” and why the Americanist heathens respect us despite our religious differences. We participated alongside the rest of the states whenever the Union called us to war, and our valor in the terrible Great Wars is spoken of at length in other authoritative books and pamphlets that seek to reconstruct the ancient era, so the author will not belabor the point. Of course, while the pre-Event history of Iowa is important, it is the duty of the author to inform the reader of the events following it. Records of what happened immediately after the event are scarce, but we do know that a pre-Event organization called the “Department of Transportation” had restored order to Iowa. We know extremely little about this organization, and what it transported, but we do know it had a reputation for efficient brutality, during what was termed the “Emergency Rule” of the Department of Transportation. Contemporary reports speak of starvation and disease on a massive scale, but perhaps less starvation that the areas surrounding Iowa suffered. We know the name of our first post-Event leader-- Charles Galloway, and effectively nothing else. Our second leader is only slightly less legendary. Perhaps every child in Iowa has heard some variant of this story, but it bears repeating: Nathan Bone stood with his head in a noose, looked Charles Galloway right in the eye, and talked for an hour without stopping. Every time the executioner reached for the lever that would drop him to his death, he started another anecdote, and Charles Galloway told the executioner, “wait, wait, I want to see where this is going.” When Nathan was forced to stop and take a breath, the executioner took the chance to pull the lever that would drop Nathan to his doom. Except Nathan had already slipped out of the noose, so as the trapdoor opened, nothing more exciting happened than the clank of wood on wood. For perhaps the first time in years, Charles Galloway laughed. He gave Nathan a stay of execution, and began to visit his prisoner daily to hear his stories, and listen to his advice. Now, while his subjects tolerated the tyrannical rule of Charles as a necessity when times were bad, eventually the land and people began to recover. And so a virtual army of common folk marched on Des Moines, where Charles had made his capital. They would be no match for his soldiers if they attacked, because in those times the ancient weapons of the American Empire were not quite so ancient, and Charles had many of them. But they did not attack; they simply sat in front of our gold-domed capitol and sang hymns. This drove Charles to distraction. What could he possibly do? Even he was not so tyrannical as to slaughter people who had committed no greater crime than singing hymns. So he went and asked his prisoner and friend Nathan for advice. Nathan answered him with a phrase he could use to immediately disperse the mob. Charles frowned, then half-frowned, then looked blank. And eventually, even something resembling a smile appeared on his weathered, cynical old face. Without another word to Nathan, he left the prison, and took a carriage to the Capitol building. He walked to the soldiers who held the top of the hill, rested a hand on their shoulders, and told them to disperse. Then, walking in front of the confused, silent crowd, he said the phrase Nathan had given him. ”Autocracy is no longer necessary. I will be holding elections immediately for my replacement.” We don’t know if this exact sequence of events happened, but something like it must have occurred sometime shortly after the turn of the 22nd century, because the Emergency Rule of the Department of Transportation ended without violence in what we now call the Bloodless Revolution. Charles Galloway disappears from the historical record shortly afterwards. In the first set of elections, Nathan Bone is elected Governor for a single term, and from future events we know he must have had several children, but he too disappears from the historical record. These two men give their name to the historically dominant political factions in the kingdom of Iowa: the “Gallys” who favor centralization, militarism, and enlightened autocracy, and the “Boneys” who favor decentralization, diplomacy, and the devolvement of power. After the Bloodless Revolution, Iowa entered its second republican era. Adopting a modified version of the pre-event constitution of Iowa as the law of the land, Iowa undertook to follow the traditions of the old American Empire. While some works will speak of the rather schismatic nature of the early republic, and the inherent inefficiencies it suffered due to the fact that democracy is only truly effective on the scale of villages and cities, it is nevertheless worthwhile to acknowledge the accomplishments of the republic. The republic restored order across most of the length and breadth of Iowa. It revived treasured rituals like RAGBRAI, the yearly pilgrimage and coming of age ceremony where our young men and women travel west to east across Iowa (and hopefully find love while doing so.) It even made a few abortive attempts to reunify the American Empire through diplomacy, which succeeded in establishing friendly diplomatic relations with our neighbors even if they failed in their stated goal of once more uniting the continent under the stars and stripes. Of course the second republican era eventually ended. Political dynasties that could trace their lineage to pre-event leaders had occupied the bulk of the highest offices available in the Iowan Republic since the start of the second republican era, and intermmarriage and favor trading between them had solidified their grasp over their offices. By 2176 A.D., the office of governor had been held by the same person for twenty-eight consecutive years, and by the same family for close to forty years. The people of Iowa had grown well and truly used to the house of Branstad-Grassley. And so, rather than waste money holding an election with a sure outcome, Iowa’s congress amended their constitution to proclaim Ethan Branstad-Grassley King Ethan I, the first king of Iowa. While it seems natural to us to proclaim a king, The author should emphasize that this was something of a radical step, at the time. Feudalism had already taken root along the east coast, inspired by ancient histories and the petty kingdoms of Brazil, but it was still alien to the largely republican midwest. Indeed, the Republic of Boonslick, whose history is almost as continuous as our own, was seen as having an ‘ordinary’ system of government, rather than an exotic one. Still, the people of Iowa saw the wisdom in having a ruler that could keep a long view of the nation’s future, rather than one that was beholden to populism and electioneering. Furthermore, we know that this era heralded the gradual rise Norse and Lakotah’s activity on the outskirts of Iowa’s territory, and Iowa needed a strong executive capable or repelling their raids. We can deduce that the Branstad-Grassley Kings were at least somewhat competent at defending their domain, as we have no records of any great sacks or massacres occuring during their reign. However, the greatest factor in repelling the barbarian raids would be the religious transformation taking place in the midwest. The catholic church had a long relationship with the lands across the Mississippi, harking all the way back to the ancient Empire of France. However, owing to the history of the American Empire as a largely protestand nation, the midwest was host to all manner of schism and heresy. But the people of the midwest could not afford division in the face of tribal raids. If a tiny protestant community was raided, they would have only themselves to rely on. But a catholic community could call on the entire church and all of its adherents to provide them succor. So it was that catholicism spread like wildfire across the midwest, beginning in the early decades of the twenty third century. The lands bordering the mississippi river especially were open to hearing the true word of god, due to trade and the catholic church’s riverine missionaries. This lead to something of a divide in Iowa. The duchy of Moingona, which held the King’s crownlands, remained majority protestan under the influence of their protestant king. The duchy of Iowa, however, which at that time included also the duchy of Driftless and the duch of the Quad Cities, converted en-masse to catholicism following increasingly brutal norse raids from the northlands and superior. This lead to a quiet tension between east and west Iowa, and indeed is responsible for many of the cultural differences we hold to this day. Our external enemies kept the feud between the King of Iowa and the Duke of Iowa from breaking out into violence, but we still refer to the period compromising the second half of the twenty third century and the first decade of the twenty fourth century as the “silent war,” as the halves of Iowa grew increasingly distant from and hostile to each other. This era was not our darkest hour, but it is perhaps the era where the kingdom of Iowa came the closest to permanently spitting apart. However, events would conspire to keep the Kingdom together. The three long winters of 2313-2316 A.D. lead to a succession of bad harvests as well as increased raiding by the Lakotah, whose agriculture suffered similarly. While the Duchy of Iowa maintained stability by asking for assistance from the church and its fellow catholic rulers, the people of the Duchy of Moingona suffered greatly. An explanation was proposed, that swiftly gained traction: God was punishing the people of Moingona for stubbornly maintaining their protestant ways. Villages converted en masse, their entire populations kneeling before God and repenting of their sins as one. But for all that the people of Iowa begged King Louis II of the house of Branstad-Grassley to see the error of his ways, his heart remained hard. Eventually, things came to a breaking point. Commoner unrest bubbled over, and an uprising from northern Iowa (hardest hit by the winters, and now the most zealous converts) marched on Des Moines. With each village it passed, it gained new converts and new marchers. While the standing army of Iowa was more than strong enough to wipe the starving common folk out, they righteously refused to attack their countrymen, and indeed some even joined the uprising themselves. A strong king might have stopped the uprising, but King Louis II was not a strong king. Indeed, he suffered from ill temper due to centuries of inbreeding between the nobility of Moingona who were largely descended from a small number of pre-Event political dynasties. Indeed, this ill temper had made him hated far and wide in the kingdom, due to his arbitrary nature and incredible rudeness. So, true to form, he locked himself in his castle and tried to ignore the world outside instead of responding to the uprising. Meanwhile, Duke Napoleon Williams of Iowa, a second-generation catholic after his father’s conversion, resolved to march on Des Moines and restore order. But as he observed mass before beginning to march, he received a vision. Saint Jean of Arc descended from the skies before his eyes, and told him this: that loyalty to a king is right and just, but only so long as the King is loyal to his people. So instructed, he resolved not to put the revolution down, but to incite it even further. He stopped by each town and village between Iowa City and Des Moines to gather recruits. Named for a legendary pre-Event figure, he invoked the history of the Iowan flag and his own namesake, and of the need to return to a more republican form of governance where Dukes were allowed to choose the king in an elective monarchy. By the time he reached Des Moines, his host had swelled to six thousand men. By the time he had reached the walls of the castle, it had doubled in size. Backed by an army of the righteous, he stood in front of the castle gates. He did not start the day in bloodshed, promising the king his safety if he would only come out and negotiate. But when the king, in his cowardice, refused to leave his room, Duke Napoleon was forced to end the day in violence. By the end of the day, the kingdom was without a king, Executed in front of a baying crowd, King Louis had his head buried under an unknown road in Des Moines, so even the lowest prisoner could walk over him without paying any mind. Our histories make no mention of what happened to King Louis’s daughter and claimant to his throne Fenn, and we conclude that she likely died in the assault of the castle. For some time, certainly, the Kingdom of Iowa must have been racked by turmoil, although our histories make only passing reference to it. But with the help of his vassals, Duke Napoleon kept order in the kingdom, avoiding a ruinous fall into civil war. Keeping his word, Duke Napoleon refrained from declaring himself king. He temporarily seized the duchy of Moingona, yes, but in 2317 A.D. also began an election process not seen in almost a hundred years. While Duke Napoleon was a clear frontrunner for the position of king, he faced two other serious contenders, both distant relations of the Branstad-Grassleys and therefore relatively legitimate claimants to the throne. One faction was led by Count Robert Smith of Dubuque, in his own name. The other was lead by Countess Mary Rodman of the Quad Cities, on behalf of her dashing son Prince Leonard. While Napoleon felt reasonably certain in his position due to his massive popularity among the common folk, the protestant lords of Moingona were unlikely to vote for him. Furthermore, the Countess Mary hinted that she might be willing to merge her faction into Count Robert’s, unless she were compensated for the support she provided during Napoleon’s revolution. Luckily for Duke Napoleon, he was playing with a stacked deck. He sat down with the two faction leaders and promised that the duchy of Iowa would be split up on his ascension to king. With the agreement of both vassals, the election went off without a hitch. Duke Napoleon received a supermajority of the votes, and was crowned King Napoleon I. He followed through with his promise, in a fashion. Count Robert was crowned Duke Robert and granted suzerainty over much of the northern part of the Duchy of Iowa. But he saw the poison and greed in Countess Mary, and undertook to limiting her power, even while keeping the letter and spirit of his promise. Rather than granting her any new lands to rule over, he merely declared that the quad cities were now a tiny duchy of two provinces. This infuriated Duchess Mary, but with Duke Robert still loyal to Napoleon, Duchess Mary was powerless to act. She would remember this slight, however. Shortly after he was crowned in 2318 A.D., the climate of the midwest improved. Meanwhile, the murder of a norse princess by a Lakotah brave lead to decades of feuding between Iowa’s northern neighors. Taking advantage of Iowa’s strength and the weakness of his neighbors, King Napoleon declared Iowa’s first war of expansion. In a massively successful campaign, he occupied what would become the province of Cannon, driving out its norse inhabitants and settling the sons and daughters of the population boom Iowa had been blessed with under his reign. King Napoleon ruled long and well over a prosperous kingdom, and is acclaimed as Iowa’s greatest leader since the legendary Nathan Bone of the First Republic. In 2346 A.D., on his deathbed, King Napoleon declared Catholicism to be the state religion of Iowa, overturning Iowa’s vestigial and nonsensical policy of religious plurality it had inherited from the American Empire. Shortly after his death, a child in the Dowling Orphanage had her tuberculosis miraculously disappear, after reported the sight of King Napoleon I in a vision. The pope, already grateful to King Napoleon I, quickly beautified him. Other miracles were swiftly attributed to the King, although the pope was more hesitant about canonizing King Napoleon so quickly after his death. Napoleon’s son and grandson were each elected with near-unanimity to wear the crow, and in return were equinaminous and pious leaders who lived long, natural lives in peace and harmony with their land and people. We recognize this time as the golden age of Iowa, where our borders were at their greatest natural extent and when our people prospered, unworried by the prospects of raids and heathens. Indeed, Iowa grew so used to living under a King Napoleon that the election was viewed as a pointless formality, and skipped entirely after the death of Napoleon III in the year 2397 A.D. Instead, the nobles of Iowa simply agreed to crown Napoleon IV without the insult of demanding from him an election campaign, and sent word to the pope that they humbly requested his presence at King Napoleon IV’s coronation. Now, catholicism had once held sway from the waters of the Mississippi to the bottom of the world, the Land of Fire. The popes had taken the fall of rome as a sign that the faith had grown stagnant, and in the new world, had disdained the establishment of a new vatican. Instead, the travelling popes had administered to their flock from a fleet of boats, sailing up and down the Mississippi, the rio grande, and the rio bravo. Traversing the carribean and visiting the coasts of Mexico, Central America, and even far-away Brazil. But as the southern lands fell to heresy, polytheism, and devil worship, it became more and more dangerous for the pope to travel, and more and more rulers turned him away from their ports. Things came to a head in the year 2390, when the heretical protestant ruler of St. Louis, Count Sampson, denied the pope passage northwards to Iowa. Obviously, this was an intolerable slight against the catholic peoples of the midwest, and to the god-fearing people of Iowa in particular. Without hesitation, the nobles of Iowa raised their levies and marched on St. Louis. With one exception-- Duchess Rodman. At almost a hundred and six years of age, Duchess Emeritus Rodman was barely more than a skeleton with skin. She had outlived her son and his son, and her courtiers spoke in whispers about how the old crone has made some dark bargain to maintain her life until her revenge against the long-dead King Napoleon was complete. But her mind was as sharp as her body was decrepit, and she schemed to bring her family power and glory. And at her side was the not yet legendary Duke Leonard Rodman, named after his grandfather.. As dashing as his grandfather, and as cunning as his great-grandmother, he has administered his tiny duchy with absolute efficiency. His roads are clean, his people are rich, and his cowboys rode with gold-plated stirrups. And yet, he was not loved. Even his own subjects could see the deceit that lied behind his gaze. With the help of his grandmother, he came up with a devious plan. He mustered his army, and then did nothing. His army simply sat, quiescent, on the banks of the Mississippi. His people were infuriated, and the other counts of the land laughed at his cowardice. How could he be so timid as to avoid marching against a single count? And so, while Duke Leonard hid behind his walls, the holy armies marched. Cowboys from the Kingdoms of Iowa and Platte (then known as Nebraska), clad in their leather armor. Minutemen from the Boonslick Republic with their crossbows, carrying on a long tradition of citizen-soldiers that could trace its descent all the way back to the ancient American Empire. Braves from the few Comanche tribes who had already embraced Catholicism, united in spirit even if not yet under the same crown. All to teach a single count a lesson neither he, nor any other protestant heretic, would ever forget. And on a sunny day in June, that host of twenty thousand men would lay sight on the City of St. Louis. And, immediately after, they would notice its fifteen thousand defenders, each and every one armed to the teeth. Shock beset the armies of the Lord. How could a single count gather so large an army? But as they drew closer, their questions were answered by the red-white-and blue banners flapping in the wind. The Holy Columbian Confederacy had come to the aid of their coreligionist. Of course, with their greater numbers and the grace of God behind them, even the feared legions of the Emperor would have fallen like wheat to a thresher. But the commander of the army, Mayor Alvin of Nebrasky City, was reputed far wide across Grangeland for his tactical and strategic genius for a reason. He’d smelt something off about this entire situation from the very beginning. So instead of launching an attack of the city of St. Louis, he began a siege. While the Holy Columbian Confederacy is famous for its seafaring ships, no one makes riverine craft quite like midwesterners. He staged galleys across the breadth of the Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri rivers, completely cutting off St. Louis from resupply. Then, it was simply a matter of waiting. Days stretched into weeks stretched into months, and yet the forces of the confederacy gave no sign that they were running out of supplies, Attempts to negotiate were rebuffed, one after another. But it made no sense-- the confederates had simply not enough time in between Count Sampson declining the pope passage north and the mustering of catholic troops to ship both troops and enough provisions to last out a siege. And then, a message came from the counties of Illinois. Confederates, five thousand of them! Each and every one of them engaged in murder, rapine, and plunder not seen in catholic lands since the Americanists had rode from Mount Rushmore with their primeval engines of war. That left Mayor Alvin in a no-win situation. If he sallied forth to seize St. Louis, he might be too weak to face the confederes terrorizing the Illinois. But if he broke the siege, he would fail to capture Saint Louis, defeating the entire point of the expedition. Seeking direction, he gathered together the high nobility that had accompanied the army. The High Proprietor of Boonslick, the King of Iowa, the King of Platte, and others besides. Even as a lowly mayor, he stood among them as an equal. They debated for the rest of the night, and eventually an accord was reached. Saint Louis must be taken, and retribution inflicted on the protestants for the crimes they had committed. And, King Napoleon IV privately confessed to Mayor Alvin, he feared for his own death. Not in the battle to come, because God would be with him, but from a far worse enemy-- disease. Conditions in siege camps were never ideal, and Napoleon IV had contracted a wasting disease his physician could not cure. If he could ask nothing more from life, he at least wished to be crowned in St. Louis by the pope before his death. So resolved, the Grand Army of the Lord assembled. Cowboys donned their armor, militiamen oiled their crossbows, and braves sharpened their axes. The next morning, they prepared to attack. A vast line of metal, leather, and flesh faced down Saint Louis. Galleys prepared for naval landings floated just out of range of the shore-based artillery. And then, to Mayor Alvin’s total surprise, the confederates struck a flag of parley. Suspecting some trick, he and six others rode to meet the single confederate emissary armed to the teeth. But there was no trick, only an offer of surrender, in return for the confederate troops being allowed to leave the city unmolested to return back to the Holy Columbian Confederacy. Four hundred men in the catholic army, three hundred men in confederate army, and one thousand, three hundred residents of St. Louis had died to sickness or starvation. Not one person had died in battle. The armies of the Lord executed the hapless Count Sampson that evening, abandoned by his allies at the last moment. The morning after, King Napoleon IV was crowned king of Iowa under the Gateway arch by the pope. By that evening, he had fallen into a sleep that he would never wake up from. Other histories relate the particulars of the Pope’s return to his original parish, and the formation of New Rome as the permanent home of the catholic church in 2398 A.D. This history’s concern, however, is the events immediately following the siege of St. Louis. Many warriors immediately abandoned the army of Mayor Alvin, sore at the denial of the loot and bounty they’d been promised for taking St. Louis. Still, roughly seven thousand remained with him as he ventured north towards the Duchy of Illinois marching double time, his soldiers traveled swift to the position of the confederate soldiers, righteous anger fueling their every step. Only to be denied battle again. They found a battlefield, yes. They found torn banners and buried corpses and broken swords. But they only found one army, not two, and that was the army of Duke Leonard of the Quad cities. The author is sure you have heard, dear reader, stories of the incredible valor and foresight of house Rodman, how they foresaw the two pronged attack, and how they prepared for it in secret because to reveal their knowledge of it would simply jeopardize the capture of Saint Louis, as the Confederacy would have simply placed all twenty thousand men to defend it. The author is sure you have heard stories of how the badly outnumbered forces of the Duchy of the Quad Cities, three thousand men to five thousand, nevertheless routed their enemy due to superior tactics, moral, and faith in their God. The author would like to, without equivocation or hesitation, call these stories false. The course of events was not obvious then, but it is obvious now: Duchess Rodman had collaborated with the Confederacy. She had engineered a situation where King Napoleon IV would die, while her son would gain enough prestige to win the election to replace King Napoleon IV, and in the bargain get her indirect revenge on King Napoleon I. She had set up her pieces so no matter what, she came down on top. First off, the basics of her plan. First she would goad the catholic realms into mustering their forces at a prepared, defensible location.St. Louis, surrounded by water, was an ideal one. The catholic army would march, and yet be suprised by a far larger defensive force than anticipated. This would give them the choice between sieging or attacking St. Louis. Except, it wouldn’t really be a choice. With local control of the waterways, the catholic army would feel extremely safe simply sieging and blockading St. Louis until it starved. Except, it wouldn’t. With knowledge of where the catholic army would attack, the confederates could provision it well in advance. And the Duchess Rodman had eight centuries to plan a defensible location. In the meantime, a confederate force could be sent up the Mississippi to the Tenesi River and then to Illinois without drawing the attention of the catholics, because of course their naval forces would be distracted with the blockade of St. Louis. This force would then plunder and sack its way westward to the Mississippi, causing mass panic and instilling fear into the hearts of Iowans. This would force the decision Mayor Alvin had to make, except it wasn’t really a decision at all. As can be seen with the immediate surrender of Confederate forces, whether or not St. Louis was take mattered little. With the confederates and Duchess Mary cooperating, the armies could meet and a battle could be staged well before the catholic army reached them regardless. Meanwhile, either a seige or a battle could provide cover for the assassination of King Napoleon IV. Thus, the people of Iowa would be made to feel intense gratitude and relief for their protector Duke Leonard, who lead the army of the Quad Cities that so heroically fought off the protestants and sent them packing. (Who, this author must remind the leader, were never seen by an authoritative force to determine the extent to which they suffered battle injuries.) And, predictably, Iowa’s next king was the first king of house Rodman, King Leonard I. Exactly as his great grandmother had planned for his grandfather, so many decades ago. Shortly after his own coronation in 2399 A.D., also in St. Louis, and also under the Gateway Arch, his great-grandmother passed away, fulfilled at last. Of course, one question remains. How did the duchess convince the confederates to help her? And to that question, this author unfortunately has no concrete answer. But the Duchess Rodman lived a very long life, and gathered many favors, and even more blackmail material. Such a favor would have to be very large indeed, or such blackmail utterly ruinous, to convince Emperor Leonidas II to sacrifice such vast amounts of treasure and a not insignificant amount of lives to give Duchess Rodman her kingdom. But she old and powerful when the Holy Columbian Empire was formed, and the remnants of house Royall are suspiciously fond of her for a catholic monarch who defeated their armies in battle. But her story, for better or worse, is over. Instead, her son take center stage. King Leonard’s subjects in the Quad Cities had known him since he was a boy, and therefore his fake veneer of gallantry and affability was transparent to them. But the remainder of Iowa, he fooled. The Napoleons were great kings, people said, but perhaps Leonard could be too. So with hope, they welcomed King Leonard with open arms. And for a time, it seemed as if he was an ideal king, and the people loved him like they had loved the Napoleons before him. He built roads and bridges, educated orphans and gave alms to beggars. When he spoke, he did so with eloquence. When he sang, we told, the songbirds themselves cried. But to a man like King Leonard, one crown was simply not enough. End Part 1 Part 2
Firstly, a timeline of events should be established for future reference: 1 - Han Solo and Chewbacca land in the Pacific Northwest 2 - They are immediately attacked by a War Party of Hostile Indians of unknown extraction upon leaving the Millennium Falcon. 3 - Chewbacca and Han fight off the War Party, Han is mortally wounded 4 - Han perishes, Chewbacca yells in anguish causing the survivors of the War Party to flee in terror 5 - Dr. Jones and Co. find the Millennium Falcon 126 years later. The Historical Inaccuracies Present in the Comic are Sectioned in the Following Categories:
Preface - What Is A "Warrior"?
Warriors I : Inaccuracies Regarding Dress, Physical Appearance
Warriors II : Inaccuracies Regarding Equipment - ArmoDefensive Weapons
Warriors III : Inaccuracies Regarding Equipment - Weapons
Preface - Where did "Sasquatch" come from?
Sasquatch I : Ambiguity Of "Sasquatch/Bigfoot/Et Al." In Coast Salish Societies With Regards To Chewbacca
Sasquatch II : Inaccuracies Regarding Sasquatch Calls And Coast Salish Accounts
Sasquatch III : Discrepancies In Appearance Between Chewbacca/Wookies And Depictions Of Sasquatch Figures In Northwest Coast Artwork
Commentary & Miscellaneous Questions
Commentary I : Lack Of Adequate Sources
Commentary II : Distinctions Between Coast Salish Groups
Commentary III : The Importance Of Cedar Bark
Miscellaneous I : Where Is This War Party from?
Miscellaneous II : Why Did They Immediately Attack The Duo?
Miscellaneous III : Why Do Depictions Of Sasquatch And Related Characters Deviate From Chewbacca?
Now that the sections are listed out, we shall start with the Indians.
Preface - What Is A "Warrior"?
The War Party featured is of Central Coast Salishan origin, this is explained in Preface - Where Did "Sasquatch" Come From?; while the date given for the encounter is the late 1810's based off of writer W. Haden Blackman's estimation for when the story takes place. Among Coast Salish Societies, distinctions were emphasized between Professional Warriors and those called upon to fight for the village, tribe, or a prominent War Chief (who was often a Professional Warrior themselves). Professional Warriors among the Central and Southern Coast Salish were deemed so if they met a mix of religious and personal qualifications (with family heritage taken into account for their success). If one came from a lineage that featured notable Warriors, had an aggressive and belligerent personality, and had quested for or obtained the proper Spirit Power (s) (commonly referred within Coast Salish communities as "Power(s)" but tends to be grouped in with vaguely defined Guardian Spirits outside of tribal communities), then that individual would be known as a Genuine Warrior with the pedigree to establish it. This often results in being ostracized from the community due to aggressive behaviors and tendencies that conflict with the highly praised values of diplomacy and patience. Warriors were often notably few in number, with Puget Sound Salish Villages noting that it would be unusual for there to be more than two Warriors in a single village. While they were often ostracized for their temperament and predilection towards violence, they were often kept around for the same reasons in order to dissuade any potential attacks on the village. Being the most experienced in the ways of warfare, Professional Warriors were often given the title of War Chief when necessary. Warriors raided the settlements of foreign or hostile tribes; bringing back loot in the form of slaves, various crafts, goods, and resources. Slaves of Warriors that met the religious requirements for power attended their masters in battle, and helped with other aspects like weapon maintenance and creation and healing wounds either the Warrior or Slave sustained. As previously noted, a Professional Warrior is rare in Coast Salish Society, whereas most non-natives would be familiar with Plains Indians that have a stronger emphasis on warfare than Coast Salishan tribes. While the Coast Salish are a distinct group from their neighbors such as the Interior Salish (related), Wakashan, Chemukan, and Penutian tribes that range from Vancouver Island to the Columbia River; they did not exist in isolation nor a vacuum. While crafts such as artwork, tools, clothing, and weaponry can be identifiable as "Coast Salish", this does not mean that they wouldn't trade for or otherwise obtain items that are Wakashan in origin. For Warriors, this meant that while one could wield a Salishan whale bone war-club, they could also have a dagger originating from Nuučaan̓uł craftsmen. Or a Salishan Slat Corselet and a Chinookan Elkhide Cuirass. The following will use the term "Combatants" when referencing the Amerindian forces in the comic, while "Warriors" refers to historical Coast Salishan Warriors that were considered professionals. WARRIORS AND ARMOR
Warriors I : Inaccuracies Regarding Dress, Physical Appearance
Hair Styles - Combatants depicted in the comic almost solely have their long hair freely flowing in the wind, unburdened by even a headband, while one has his hair in a quasi-bob similar to dreadlocks. In reality, variations of top-knot styles were used in order to prevent it from becoming an issue, as it did when Chewbacca slammed two combatants together by grabbing their hair. Puyallup - Nisqually by Marian Smith describes that participants in Warfare and Hunting expeditions "parted their hair across the head and tied front and side hair into a knot on top of the head or on the forehead".
Hair Decoration - Members of the War Party are seen wearing feathers in their flowing locks. While feathers worn in one's hair is attested to in sources such as "Indians of Puget Sound" and "People of Cascadia", the presence of such decoration is highly unlikely considering that the standard hairstyle for Warriors are top-knot variants in order to prevent adversaries from yanking on their hair; feathers would merely be an additional liability in combat.
Lack of Headdresses/Helmets - Outside of feathers worn in their hair, none of the combatants is wearing any sort of headdress or helmet despite them being still in use during this period. Coast Salishan Warriors often wore religious or protective gear while on the warpath. It wouldn't be unthinkable that most of the Combatants depicted aren't Warriors and lack the powers required for such decoration but it is notable that none of them are wearing anything outside of feathers.
Lack of Cranial Deformation - To the average Coast Salish Noble, an unflattened head painted an unflattering picture of the family/upbringing. Either the mark of slavery, or that of the low class and worthless. None of the Combatants depicted have visibly discernable deformed craniums like so.
War Paint - None of the combatants have applied War Paint to their faces nor bodies. Considering that this War Party was trekking in the mountains, "fully" equipped and ready for battle, it is notable that none of them are wearing either black, red, or a combination thereof war paint.
Capes - Fur capes were historically worn by those venturing into the forests, during special events, and winter. They historically were usually the whole animal hide if bear, wolf, mountain lion, and similar animals were used; while smaller mammals had their hides sewn together. Therefore, a cape of marmot or mountain beaver hides was longer than the ones depicted. Yet for war and battle, fur capes along with cedar bark capes were abandoned for practical reasons.
Pants/Trousers - If on a trek into the mountains or areas with heavy brush, buckskin leggings were worn with a breechcloth of either cedar bark (which will be discussed in more detail) or of tanned buckskin. Pants/Trousers were not a style of clothing present in Coast Salish/Wakashan/et al. wardrobes pre-contact.
Footwear - The Combatants are wearing what appear to be riding boots despite no horses being present. If wearing footwear (such as a trip to the mountains), a style of pointed tipped moccasin was used that had flat heels.
Warriors II : Inaccuracies Regarding Equipment - ArmoDefensive Weapons
Buckskins And Fringe - While buckskin clothing was seen as prestigious to wear, almost everybody could manage to obtain some clothing, and it was often practical to wear while trekking in the hills and mountains; it is unusual to have it fringed as if it were from the Plains tribes. The design of the Combatant wielding a spear and ax (for unexplained reasons at the same time) is also inconsistent with patterns used in decorations of Coast Salishan clothing, which placed emphasis on either geometric designs (mostly on basketry and woven items) and crescents.
Cuirasses - The sole armored Combatant is wearing a corselet of what appears to be wood slats, which is an armor historically used by Northwest Coast groups including the Coast Salish (there has been debate as to whether or not they used such armor but there is more evidence that they did prior to Euro-American/Canadian colonization). However the slats are horizontal instead of vertical, resembling a breastplate from the Plains rather than a proper cuirass.
Unusual cuffs/bracelets - Combatants are depicted wearing loose bracelets of undetermined use and origin. Wristwear among Coast Salishan tribesmen were bracelets and cuffs of carved horn or copper.
Sleeved Shirts - Elkhide Cuirasses (if this is what the comic is attempting to depict the Combatants are wearing) are overwhelmingly described as being sleeveless, yet many of the shirts depicted have long sleeves.
Shields - Shields are not widely attested to used by Warriors due to the advancement of body armor, yet they existed in some forms, being composed of wooden slats, bucklers of copper, or modest shields of rawhide. These shields or close representations of them are also not present despite their usefulness.
Total Absence of Woven Cedar Bark - Bizarrely, not one member of this war party is wearing nor using anything that is clearly made from the bark of the Western Red Cedar. Clothing made from cedar bark is utilitarian in the temperate rainforests of British Columbia and Washington. It is waterproof, durable, and omnipresent among Northwest Coast Indians.
Warriors III : Inaccuracies Regarding Equipment - Weapons
Bows - Bows depicted are cartoonishly proportioned when compared to bows historically used by Coast Salishan groups (along with those used on the West Coast). The bowman appears to be using a bow-lance, a style not found on the Northwest Coast but present on the Great Plains. Historically, tribes used somewhat recurved bows of Pacific Yew with backings of sinew, snake or fish skin.
Arrows - The fletching on the arrows is far smaller than what would historically be used by Warriors. Fletching on arrows ranged from 6-12" depending on the use.
Iron or Steel Axes (Tomahawks) - With the comic taking place in the early 19th century (specifically in the 1810s), axes potentially used by Warriors were highly unlikely to be made of any metal that was not copper (if they used metal axes at all). By this era, any iron or steel weapons used by Warriors would be rare and obtained via trade with groups that had contact with European traders or explorers, or groups on the outer coast that scavenged iron and steel that had washed up onto the beach. Those Iron or Steel weapons would likely be daggers and short swords.
Spears - Combatants are wielding spears decorated with feathers, fur, fringe, and using miniscule stone heads; none of which is attested to in sources that detail polearms used by Cascadian Amerindians. Spears might either be a solid piece of carved and sharpened wood, or use stone, shell, or even copper spear heads over 8" in length. The Southern Coast Salish (especially those that are either closest to the mountain passes or have heavy interactions with Plateau groups) might be the only tribes that could have had such decoration like buckskin fringe due to their frequent and extensive contact with Plateau groups such as Sahaptin-speaking Yakamas or Klickitats after their adoption of certain Plains Indian aspects. However, this is mostly speculation and unlikely due to the lack of contact between the Central Coast Salish and Plateau groups along with the amount of time for such influences to take place.
Lack of Daggers/Short Swords - Along with the war-club, daggers/short swords were seen as the tools of Warriors. Yet none of the Combatants depicted wield such blades, nor have any evidence whatsoever that they even have any knives on their person. Not even is the trademark double-headed dagger used from the Columbia River to Southeastern Alaska featured. Daggers used by Warriors varied in length (up to ~2 feet long), blade size/width, and materials (iron, steel, copper, obsidian, chert, mussel shell).
Lack of War-Clubs - Among the essential implements for any respectable Warrior would be a fine war-club carved from strong woods such as Pacific Yew, stone like granite, to whale ribs. Despite the importance of a self respecting Warrior having a War-Club for battle, it is completely absent from the comic. Again, a necessary weapon that clearly marked an individual as a Warrior is missing from the arsenal of these aggressive Combatants.
Lack of Historically Used Miscellaneous Weapons - Besides the lack of the standard melee weaponry used by Warriors, only hand axes and spears are wielded despite the wider variety of weapons historically used. Slavekiller War Clubs (War-Picks), hand mauls, harpoons, and skullcracker war-clubs are a sample of weapons that Warriors would have been commonly used in addition to daggers/short swords and war-clubs.
Warriors - Conclusion:
After reviewing the recorded weapons, armor, clothing, and appearances; the Combatants depicted are at best heavily distorted from their apparent inspirations. They appear as a group of ill-equipped, ill-prepared, low-class men who were unlikely to survive the conflict.
Preface - Where did "Sasquatch" come from?
"Sasquatch" is derived from the Halkomelem term "Sásq'ets". This alone has narrowed the tribal groups to those that spoke not only a Central Coast Salishan Language, but specifically Halkomelem (approximately 38 tribes over three dialects). This means that Chewbacca and Han Solo landed somewhere near the modern day British Columbian/Washington State border and encountered Halkomelem-Speaking Tribesmen. Now it is a possibility that these tribesmen were venturing into the territory of a tribe that primarily spoke a different Central Coast Salish language such as Lhéchalosem (the Nooksack language), or even a non-Coast Salish group. Within anthropological sources such as "Puyallup-Nisqually", there are figures that by description match up quite well with the modern conception of "Bigfoot/Sasquatch" in the form of the Tsiatko (Stick Indian). Tall, hairy, malodorous men who lived in nests in the forest. While they used bows, couldn’t swim, occasionally wore animal hides, and communicated via a whistling language; they could be reasonably be taken as the inspiration for modern day Bigfoot along with related figures in Coast Salishan/Northwest Coast Folklore (Dᶻugʷə', Dzunuḵ̓wa, multiple Cannibal figures with similar descriptions). However, the Coast Salish did not view them and related figures overall as gentle guardians of the forest, hidden people, benevolent, nor mythological. While some were seen as gentle giants, most were seen as almost entirely hostile to Humans. This hostility was manifested through murder, kidnapping and enslavement of women and children, harassment, theft, destruction of property, and the occasional prank. There are multiple accounts in "Puyallup-Nisqually" describing not only witnessing such giants, but also dealing with either killing one, attacks by multiple subjects, and even the kidnapping and adoption of Tsiatko youth. One aspect that should be kept in mind is what would Coast Salishan tribespeople consider "hairy"? Considering that Sasquatch is often depicted as an undiscovered Non-Human Great Ape (of which most members are extremely hairy compared to modern humans), it is often assumed that Sasquatch must resemble either an extraordinarily hairy human, or a non-human hominid. However, within the contexts of traditional Coast Salish grooming and religious habits, Europeans are very hairy. This is a result from the ritual scrubbing off of body hair in their pubescence in order to prepare them for quests for power. As the vast majority of Coast Salishan tribespeople rubbed and plucked their body hair off with rocks in their early teens, a man with what by contemporary standards is a moderately hairy torso would be seen as jaw-droppingly hairy by pre-contact tribespeople since he did not undergo similar rituals. Thus, while Bigfoot/Sasquatch is often portrayed as being either a non-human hominid or just as hairy, a Coast Salish tribesman might have envisioned somebody simply with a larger than average amount of body hair. With these contexts, we shall examine the inconsistencies of Chewbacca as the legendary Sasquatch.
Sasquatch I : Ambiguity Of "Sasquatch/Bigfoot/Et Al." In Coast Salish Societies With Regards To Chewbacca/Wookies.
As previously stated and worthy of being reiterated: the Coast Salish did not exist in a vacuum. While the most obvious signs of interaction with non-Salishan groups would be physical goods such as art, tools, clothing, and religious paraphernalia; religious and/or folkloric figures/concepts would also be present. While the term Sásq'ets is of Halkomelem origin, there are similar figures in Nuučaan̓uł and Kwakwaka'wakw folklore. Due to this, it is actually rather ambiguous when attempting to point out which incarnation Chewbacca is when there are multiple figures that have been retroactively referred to as "Sasquatch" and the figure(s) referred to as Sásq'ets have little distinguishing features when compared to other folkloric beings in the region. Keeping in mind the earlier ambiguity of "hairy" in terms of Coast Salish standards, Chewbacca might
Sasquatch II : Inaccuracies Regarding Sasquatch Calls And Coast Salish Accounts
While Chewbacca can roughly be seen as what a Coast Salish tribesman might describe as a tall, violent, and "Hairy" man; his signature roar most notably would be a stark contrast to what "Sásq'ets"/"Tsiatko"/etc is reported to emit (albeit, he does howl instead immediately after the death of Han Solo). The figures in Coast Salish Folklore do not roar, scream, howl, nor growl for intimidation. They merely whistle. While whistling might be seen as unnerving to those trekking throughout the woods alone, it was used to communicate with other members of their race.
Sasquatch III : Discrepancies In Appearance Between Chewbacca/Wookies And Depictions Of Sasquatch Figures In Northwest Coast Artwork
To reflect how they whistled, traditional figures often referred to retroactively as "Sasquatch" are depicted with puckered lips in imitation of how they whistled. With that being so, Chewbacca does not resemble any artwork that is commonly referred to as portraying a Sasquatch/Bigfoot for he is only ever shown howling, growling, or roaring.
Sasquatch - Conclusion
With the vague details that can be discerned from anthropological accounts in regards to the appearance of Giants that could be Sásq'ets, Chewbacca's portrayal as the apparent originator of Sasquatch is too vague to truly disprove or confirm (excluding that there are multiple figures with similar features ranging across the Northwest which cannot all be Chewbacca). His temperament fits certain descriptions, while other accounts of similar figures describe a drastically different character all together (Chewbacca has never been shown to enslave women and children). This section will be further elaborated in an edit.
Commentary I : Lack of Adequate Sources
Unfortunately, the sources for Coast Salishan warfare prior to the Indian Wars in the Puget Sound are far and few in-between. Tactics, weapons, armor styles, and martial art styles are largely lost to the tide of time. However, the sources that do describe such are invaluable in the details they give (along with artifacts discovered/obtained).
Commentary II : Distinctions Between Coast Salish Groups
A keen observer will note that the tribes of Puget Sound are mostly Southern Coast Salish, with the Nooksack and Lummi being the two Central Coast Salishan tribes in the region. While there are linguistic differences resulting in the languages (for example: speakers of Xʷləšucid and Halq̓eméylem wouldn't immediately understand what the other is saying), their culture is largely similar. Religious Figures like the Changer are present with the same role, Power concepts are the same, social classes are the same. While the Southern Coast Salish might use Sahaptin terms in everyday speech or even dress on occasion, they are still Coast Salish in art, crafts, housing, social & religious concepts.
Commentary III : The Importance Of Cedar Bark
Examples of Cedar Bark Clothing As touched upon in "Warriors III : Inaccuracies Regarding Equipment - ArmoDefensive Weapons", the processed inner back of the western red cedar is an essential resource for everyday clothing among Amerindians along the Northwest Coast. To not have a hat made out of cedar bark was to be lower than even the slaves. Not having one meant exposure to rain, snow, and the sun, all of which will be encountered in a year along the coast. If trekking through the mountains, a cedar hat was brought along. If on the canoe, paddling to visit a relative across the water, a cedar hat was worn.
Miscellaneous I - Where Is This War Party from?
Whom were they seeking to attack in the deep forest while the vast majority of villages were located on the coast? Their aggression is unusual along with almost everything about them.
Miscellaneous II - Why Did They Immediately Attack The Duo?
Unless Wookies and Galactic Smugglers are a long hated foe of their tribe, it is highly unusual that they would instantly attack the two without any provocation. An early European Explorer (Manuel Quimper Benítez del Pino, 1790 CE) noted that while meeting with what could reasonably surmised to be Coast Salish tribesmen due to the noted differences in language and their location, they were dressed and prepared for battle yet were genial towards the explorers. If Han and Chewie made no threatening gestures or attacks towards them, then why try to kill them?
Miscellaneous III - Why Do Depictions Of Sasquatch And Related Characters Deviate From Chewbacca?
This expands off the observations that Chewbacca does not resemble the whistling expressions from artwork. If Chewbacca is the progenitor for the Sásq'ets legend (this is not explicitly stated but is implied) among the tribes of the Northwest Coast, then why does none of the artwork of Sásq'ets and related figures not resemble Chewbacca if he has a rather distinct appearance? Sources: 1 - Puyallup-Nisqually, 1940 by Marian Smith; despite name, covers the majority of Coast Salish Groups within the Puget Sound. 2 - Peoples of Cascadia, 2012 by Heidi Bohan 3 - Myron Eells and Puget Sound Indians; 1973 by Robert H. Ruby and John A. Brown 4 - Tribes of the Extreme Northwest; 1877, by George Gibbs and William Healey Dall 5 - North American Bows, Arrows, and Quivers: An Illustrated History; 1893, by Otis Tufton Mason 6 - "They Recognize No Superior Chief"; 2009, by William O. Angelbeck 7 - Native North American Shields, Armor, and Fortifications; 2004, by David E. Jones 8 - Cedar; 1984, by Hilary Stewart 9 - The Problem of Justice : Tradition and Law in the Coast Salish World; 2001, by Bruce G. Miller
Taking place each year on the Sunday before Valentine's Day, Man Day is "a day for celebration by friends, family and associates of the men of the world." It is unknown why it is associated with Valentine's Day, but perhaps it is because there is a perception that Valentine's Day is geared more towards women and this way men get a day where the focus is on them.
National Cream Cheese Brownie Day
Today celebrates the cream cheese variation of the chocolate dessert, the brownie. Brownies can vary in their texture; they may have a similar consistency to cake, fudge, or cookies. Although they are often plain, they many times include ingredients such as nuts, frosting, or powdered sugar. They almost always are chocolate, but variations exist such as the blonde brownie, which substitutes the chocolate for brown sugar, and butterscotch brownies, popular in the South, which also contain no chocolate, and are topped with butterscotch meringue. Brownies were created in the late 19th century, and were popularized at the beginning of the 20th. There is some debate as to their provenance. One story claims that Bertha Palmer, wife of the owner of the Palmer House Hotel in Chicago, asked a pastry chef to create a dessert for women to eat at the World's Columbian Exposition. The chef created the Palmer House Brownie, a brownie with walnuts and apricot glaze, that is still sold at the hotel today. Another story claims a housewife in Bangor, Maine, created the brownie. Brownies began appearing in their current form in various cookbooks during the first decade of the 20th century. Cream cheese is made from milk and cream; it must contain at least 33 percent milk fat, and a moisture content of less than 55 percent. It was produced in small batches on family farms across the country in the nineteenth century. It was first mass produced in 1873, by William A Lawrence of Chester, New York. His brand eventually became "Philadelphia" cream cheese, which has been a part of Kraft since 1928. Besides being used for cream cheese brownies, it is popular on bagels, bread, crackers, and chips, and is used to make cheesecake and crab rangoon.
National Flannel Day
With winter still going strong, a day dedicated to a type of warm, sturdy clothing is well welcomed. Flannel is made of a fine, smooth yarn called worsted yarn. The yarn is napped on one or both sides. Napping is a finishing process where the fiber ends are brought to the surface, making the fabric softer and warmer. The words "flannel" and "plaid" are often used interchangeably, but they are referring to different things. Flannel is a material or fabric, not a pattern. In contrast, plaid is a pattern. It originated with tartans many centuries ago. Many plaid shirts today are made of synthetic fabrics and lighter cotton instead of flannel, although many plaid flannel garments are still made. Flannel was first made in Wales, in the sixteenth or seventeenth century. It was made to replace wool, as it was warmer and sturdier. Since its creation, flannel has been a mainstay of workwear, and it has been important to fashion at certain times throughout history as well. Throughout the years, its warmth, comfort, and versatility have kept it popular. After getting its start in Wales, flannel spread around Europe during the Industrial Revolution, being aided by a process called carding. It is not known where its name came from, but the French began calling it flanelle, while Germans called it flanell. In America, it may have first been used during the Civil War, in soldiers' undershirts and four-button coats. In 1889, Hamilton Carhartt opened a factory in Detroit and started making flannel clothes for workers to wear. It was at this time that flannel started being worn by factory workers, by those working on the railroads and in other types of construction, and by loggers. It was also used for long underwear. Flannel continued to be worn as such into the twentieth century when it became a symbol of rugged men and blue collar workers. At this time there was also a fascination with Paul Bunyan, a mythical lumberjack who wore a red plaid flannel shirt. This endeared him even more to loggers and lumberjacks. It was used during World War I for undershirts, belts, and patches, and again during World War II, in the lining of the M1941 Field Jacket. In between the wars, during the Great Depression, it was also widespread, which reflected the economic times more than anything else. In the postwar years, flannel expanded from its blue-collar roots to be used in more sophisticated clothing such as suits. Many businessmen wore flannel suits. In fact, a popular book of the time was The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, which was adapted into a film starring Gregory Peck. Flannel came back as a fashion statement in a very different form in the early 1990s, as a part of the grunge music scene. Members of bands such as Nirvana and Pearl Jam began wearing flannel shirts, as did fans of the music. Rather than gray flannel suits, cheaper flannel was worn, in a much more messy fashion. Today flannel is often associated with outdoor wear, with some popular brands being L.L. Bean and Pendleton. It also appears in fashion wear, being worn by both men and women, and being made by brands such as Tommy Hilfiger, Dior, Ralph Lauren, Louis Vuitton, and Maison Margiela. In recent years it has also become a part of hipster fashion.
National Home Warranty Day
Today celebrates the umbrella, an instrument that protects people from the sun and rain. The term more associated with the sunshade umbrella is the parasol. Umbrellas were used in ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, India, and the Middle East, as early as the fourth century BCE. The first recorded collapsible umbrella dates to 21 CE in China. The canopies of ancient umbrellas were built with different materials than those that are used today, being made of feathers, leaves, and leather; however, their shape was reminiscent of today's umbrellas. In ancient times, the parasol umbrella was mainly used by women, although men of royalty, clergy, and dignitaries often used them as well. Rain umbrellas and parasol umbrellas seem to have arrived in Europe in the 1600s, and by some accounts, in the late 1500s; it is believed they came from China. Rain umbrellas from the 1600s were woven out of silk, giving them limited water resistance compared to today's umbrellas. In the late 1600s, rain umbrellas were still considered something only distinguished women would use, not men. The first lightweight folding umbrella of Europe was introduced in 1710, and in 1759 an umbrella combined with a cane was introduced in France, which became wildly popular in Paris; by pushing a button on the side of the cane it could be opened. Yet, while umbrellas became popular in France, in the early 1700s they were still uncommon in England, not coming into acceptance until the late 1700s. By the late 1700s, umbrellas became an accessory of both men and women in Europe. The materials of umbrellas have changed over the years. The shaft and ribs of many early umbrellas were made from whalebones. They were replaced by wood, and then by steel and aluminum. Many are now made from fiberglass. Nylon fabrics and flexible plastics are now usually used to make the canopy, replacing the silks, and earlier feathers and leaves. Umbrellas are often divided into two categories: fully collapsible and non-collapsible. Fully collapsible umbrellas have a metal pole that retracts. Non-collapsible umbrellas have a collapsible canopy, but the metal support pole does not retract. There are other various types of umbrellas, and umbrellas continue to be developed today. Some umbrellas open manually, and some open by pushing a button. The largest hand-portable umbrellas are golf umbrellas. Large stationary parasols are fixed on things such as outdoor patio tables.
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